Hoofstuk 5

  1. Inleiding

De Groot 1968. Inleiding tot de Algemene Taalwetenschap; tevens, inleiding tot de grammatica van het hedendaagse Nederlands, bl. 12-14.

Pereltsvaig 2012. Languages of the World. An introduction, bl. 27 e.v.

Watkins 2011. The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, bl. i-xxxiv.

  1. Afrikaans binne Indo-Europese verband

Conradie, C.J. 1986. Taalgeskiedenis, bl. 48-50.

De Villiers, M. 1983. Nederlands en Afrikaans, bl. 37-39.

Beekes 1990. Vergelijkende taalwetenschap. Tussen Sanskrit en Nederlands, bl. 33-57.

De Vaan 2012. Wanneer zijn talen familie van elkaar? Over oertalen en taalverwantschap.

Lecoutere & Grootaers 1948. Inleiding tot de Taalkunde en tot de Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsch.

Verdam 1923. Uit de Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Taal.

Baldi 1983. An Introduction to the Indo-European Languages.

Beekes 2011. Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. An introduction.

Benveniste 1973. Indo-European Language and Society.

Cardona e.a. (eds.) 1970. Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans.

Clackson 2007. Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction.

Crystal 1987. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, bl. 296 e.v.

Crystal 2010. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, bl. 306-311.

Harbert 2007. The Germanic Languages.

Kortlandt 2010. Studies in Germanic, Indo-European and Indo-Uralic.

Lehmann 1962. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction, bl. 18 e.v.

Lockwood 1969. Indo-European Philology.

Lockwood 1972. A Panorama of Indo-European Languages.

Lockwood 1976. An informal history of the German language, with chapters on Dutch and Afrikaans, Frisian and Jiddish.

Ostler 2006. Empires of the Word. A language history of the world, bl.  272 e.v.

Ramat & Ramat (eds.) 1998. The Indo-European Languages.

Renfrew 1998. Introduction: The Nostratic Hypothesis, Linguistic Macrofamilies and Prehistoric Studies.

Ringe 2008. A History of English. From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic.

Voyles & Barrack 2014. A Structural History of the German Language. (Hoofstuk 2.)

Internetskakels

Wikipedia 2013c. Indo-Europese tale.

Wikipedia 2013k. Proto-Indo-Europees.

Wikipedia 2013n. Indo-European studies.

Wikipedia 2013o. Proto-Indo-Europeans.

Wikipedia 2013p. Proto-Indo-European Urheimat hypotheses.

  1. Die Indo-Europese taalstam
  • Naam en verspreiding

Aalbrecht 2013. Taal voor in bed, op het toilet of in bad, bl. 45-48.

Austin (red.) 2008. 1000 talen van de wêreld. Levende, bedreigde en uitgestorven talen, bl. 38-59, 260-261.

De Groot 1968. Inleiding tot de Algemene Taalwetenschap; tevens, inleiding tot de grammatica van het hedendaagse Nederlands, bl. 13-14.

Anthony & Ringe 2015. The Indo-European Homeland from Linguistic and Archeological Perspectives, bl. 199-220.

Pereltsvaig & Lewis 2015. The Indo-European Controversy.

Renfrew 1998. Introduction: The Nostratic Hypothesis, Linguistic Macrofamilies and Prehistoric Studies, bl. xiii-xvi.

Watkins 2011. The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, bl. i-xxxiv.

Van Bree 2014b. Leerboek voor de Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands: Deel 1 – Gotische grammatica. Inleiding. Klankleer. (Hoofstuk 8.)

3.2        Was daar ʼn Indo-Europese oervolk?

Conradie, C.J. 1986. Taalgeskiedenis, bl. 48-49.

Raidt 1991a. Afrikaans en sy Europese Verlede, bl. 4-5.

Aalbrecht 2013. Taal voor in bed, op het toilet of in bad, bl. 47-48.

De Vaan 2012. Wanneer zijn talen familie van elkaar? Over oertalen en taalverwantschap.

Lecoutere & Grootaers 1948. Inleiding tot de Taalkunde en tot de Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsch. (Vergelyk bl. 266-270 vir ʼn verduideliking van hoe die verskillende Indo-Germaanse tale ontstaan het; vergelyk bl. 271-272 vir die aanduiding van verdere bronne oor hierdie onderwerp.)

Rietbergen 2007. Geschiedenis van Nederland in vogelvlucht: Van prehistorie tot heden, bl. 12-16.

Van der Sijs (red.) 2011. Dialectatlas van het Nederlands, bl. 34-37.

Verdam 1923. Uit de Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Taal, bl. 5-9.

Anthony 2010. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World.

Anthony & Ringe 2015. The Indo-European Homeland from Linguistic and Archeological Perspectives, bl. 199-220.

Barber 1975. The story of Language (Hoofstuk V, bl. 91-95.)

Benveniste 1973. Indo-European Language and Society (waarin die skrywer allerlei ou Indo-Europese woorde in verband met die ekonomie, familieverwantskap, sosiale status, die reg, godsdiens, ens. ondersoek en aantoon wat hulle ons leer oor die Indo-Europese volk).

Blench 2006. Archaeology, Language, And the African Past.

Cardona e.a. (eds.) 1970. Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans.

Claiborne 1977. Who were the Indo-Europeans?, bl. 261-282.

Clackson 2007. Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, bl. 15-19.

Crystal 1987. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, bl. 296-299.

Crystal 2010. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, bl. 306-311.

Cunliffe 2011. Europe between the Oceans: 9000 BC – AD 1000.

Evans 1997. Archeology and linguistics. Aboriginal Australia in global perspective.

Fagan 2004. People of the earth: an introduction to world prehistory.

Fortson 2009. Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 2.)

Heggarty 2015. Prehistory through languages and archeology, bl. 598-626.

Kerns 1985. Indo-European Prehistory.

Lehmann 1993. Theoretical Basis of Indo-European Linguistics, bl. 13-21.

Lehmann 2002. Pre-Indo-European.

Palmer 1972. Descriptive and Comparative Linguistics. A critical introduction, bl. 360-372.

Penny (ed.) 2005. Indo-European Perspectives.

Poser 2003. Dating Indo-European

Raulwing 1998. Horses, Chariots and Indo-Europeans. Foundations and Methods of Chariotry Research from the Viewpoint of Comparative Indo-European.

Renfrew 1998. Introduction: The Nostratic Hypothesis, Linguistic Macrofamilies and Prehistoric Studies, bl. xiii-xvi.

Renfrew, C. 2008. Prehistory: The Making of the Human Mind.

Szemerénski 1999. Introduction to Indo-European Linguistics, bl. 31-34.

Vennemann 2012. Contact and Prehistory: The Indo-European North-West, bl. 380-405.

Watkins 1969. Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans, bl. 1496-1502.

Watkins 2011. The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, bl. i-xxxiv.

Wolfe & Stanley 1980. Linguistic problems with patriarchal reconstructions of Indo-European culture: a little more than kin, a little less than kind, bl. 227-237.

Wright, R. 1991. Quest for the mother tongue, bl. 39-68. (ʼn Besondere bron.)

Internetskakels

Wikipedia 2013x. Linguistic anthropology.

Wikipedia 2013m. Prehistoric Europe.

Wikipedia 2013mmm. Linguïstische antropology

3.3     Woonplek?

Conradie, C.J. 1986. Taalgeskiedenis, bl. 49.

Raidt 1991a. Afrikaans en sy Europese Verlede, bl. 5-6.

Aalbrecht 2013. Taal voor in bed, op het toilet of in bad, bl. 46-47.

Beekes 1990. Vergelijkende Taalwetenschap: Tussen Sanskrit en Nederlands. Een inleiding in de vergelijkende Indo-Europese taalwetenschap, bl. 70-78.

Lecoutere & Grootaers 1948. Inleiding tot de Taalkunde en tot de Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsch, bl. 270.

Van der Sijs (red.) 2011. Dialectatlas van het Nederlands, bl. 34-37. (Aangevul met besondere kaarte.)

Van der Sijs (red.) 2011. Dialectatlas van het Nederlands, bl. 33-40.

Verdam 1923. Uit de Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Taal, bl. 6-7.

Adams & Otte 1999. Did Indo-European languages spead before farming?

Alinei 2004. The Paleolithic Continuity Theory on Indo-European origins: An Introduction, bl. 13-41.

Alinei 2012. The Paleolithic Continuity Paradigm for the Origins of Indo-European Languages. An introduction in progress. http://www.continuitas.org/intro.html

Anthony 1995. Horse, wagon and chariot: Indo-European languages and archeology.

Anttila 1972. An Introduction to Historical and Comparative  Linguistics. (Hoofstukke 21 en 22,  bl. 377-397.)

Atkinson & Gray 2006. How old is the Indo-European family? Progress or more moths to the flame?, bl. 91-109.

Barber 1975. The Flux of Language, bl. 95-99.

Bengtson (ed.) 2008. In Hot Pursuit of Language in Prehistory. Essays in the four fields of anthropology.

Bickerton 2008. But how did protolanguage actually start?, bl. 169-176

Blench 2006. Archaeology, Language, And the African Past.

Blench & Spriggs (eds.) 1997. Archeology and Language I: Theoretical and methodological orientations.

Blench, & Spriggs (eds.) 2012. Archeology and Language II: Archaeological Data and Linguistic Hypotheses.

Campbell, L. 2004. Historical linguistics. An introduction. (Hoofstuk 15, bl. 378-420.) (ʼn Baie goeie oorsigtelike bron met talle voorbeelde en toepassings.)

Cunliffe 2011. Europe between the Oceans: 9000 BC – AD 1000.

Dolgopolsky 1998. The Nostratic Macrofamily and Linguistic Palaeontology

Friedrich 1970. Proto-Indo-European trees. The arboreal system of a prehistoric people.

Fortson 2009. Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 2.)

Fortson 2015. Indo-European: methods and problems, bl. 646-656.

Gimbutas 1970. Proto-Indo-European culture: The Kurgan culture during the fifth, fourth and third millennia, B.C.

Heggarty 2015. Prehistory through languages and archeology, bl. 598-626.

Hock (ed.) 1997. Historical Indo-European, and Lexicographical. (Heelwat hoofstukke is ter sake.)

Huld 1993. Early Indo-European weapons terminology, bl. 223-234.

Humanjourney 2013. Language development: The Indo-Europeans.

Lehmann 1993. Theoretical Basis of Indo-European Linguistics, bl. 281-288.

Mallory 1991. In search of the Indo-Europeans.

Mallory & Adams (eds.) 1997. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture.

Mallory & Adams 2006. The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World.

Nichols 1997. The Epicentre of the Indo-European Linguistic Spread.

Pakendorf 2015. Historical linguistics and molecular anthropology, bl. 627-441.

Palmer 1972. Descriptive and Comparative Linguistics. A critical introduction, bl. 360-371.

Parry 2012. Mother of many modern languages traced to Ancient Turkey.

Parvulescu 1993. The Indo-European horse: a linguistic reconstruction, bl. 69-76.

Pereltsvaig 2012. Languages of the World. An introduction, bl. 21-27. (Vir ʼn oorsig oor die teorieë rakende die herkoms van die Indo-Europeërs.)

Poser 2003. Dating Indo-European.

Raulwing 1998. Horses, Chariots and Indo-Europeans. Foundations and Methods of Chariotry Research from the Viewpoint of Comparative Indo-European.

Renfrew 1990. Archeology and language. The puzzle of Indo-European origins.

Renfrew 1997. World Linguistic Diversity and Farming Dispersals.

Renfrew 1998. Introduction: The Nostratic Hypothesis, Linguistic Macrofamilies and Prehistoric Studies, bl. xiii-xvi.

Trask 1996. Historical linguistics, bl. 180-183.

Trask 2015. Trask’s Historical Linguistics, bl. 168-169, 343-345.

Watkins 1969. Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans, bl. 1496-1502.

Watkins 2011. The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, b.l. i-xxxiv.

Wright, R. 1991. Quest for the mother tongue, bl. 39-68. (‘n Besondere bron.)

Wolfe & Stanley 1980. Linguistic problems with patriarchal reconstructions of Indo-European culture: a little more than kin, a little less than kind, bl. 227-237.

Wolfe 1993. Reconstructing PIE terms for kinship and marriage, bl. 41-52.

York 1993. Toward a Proto-Indo-European vocabulary of the sacred, bl. 235-254.

Hansen, B.S.S.; B.N Whitehead, T. Olander & B.A Olsen (eds.) 2017. Etymology and the European Lexicon. Proceedings of the 14th Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, 17-22 September 2012, Copenhagen. Bristol, USA: ISD, Distributor of Scholarly Books.

Pereltsvaig, A. & M.W. Lewis 2017. The Indo-European Controversy. Facts and Fallacies in Historical Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Robbeets, M. & A. Savelyev (eds.) 2017. Language Dispersal Beyond Farming. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Internetskakels

Wikipedia 2013j. Proto-Indo-Europees.

Wikipedia 2013m. Prehistoric Europe.

3.4   ʼn Indo-Europese grondtaal?

De Villiers, M. 1983. Nederlands en Afrikaans, bl. 36-37.

Venter, H. 1975a. Die verwantskap van Afrikaans met ander tale, bl. 15.

Aalbrecht 2013. Taal voor in bed, op het toilet of in bad, bl. 47-48.

Lecoutere & Grootaers 1948. Inleiding tot de Taalkunde en tot de Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsch, bl. 253-254, 273-275.

Kulikov & Lavidas (eds.) 2015. Proto-Indo-European Syntax and its Developments.

Meier-Brügger e.a. 2003. Indo-European Linguistics.

Rauch & Carr (eds.) 1997. Insights in Germanic Linguistics II. Classic and Contemporary.

Szemerénski 1999. Introduction to Indo-European Linguistics.

Watkins 2011. The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, bl. i-xxxiv.

Internetskakels

Wikipedia 2013j. Proto-Indo-Europees.

Wikipedia 2013m. Prehistoric Europe.

Wikipedia 2013j. Proto-Indo-Europees.

3.4.1     Enkele kenmerke van die Indo-Europese grondtaal

Raidt 1991a. Afrikaans en sy Europese Verlede, bl. 6-7.

Schrijnen 1905. Inleiding tot de studie der vergelijkende indogermaansche taalwetenschap.

Schrijnen1917. Handleiding bij de studie der Vergelijkende Indogermaansche Taalwetenschap, vooral met betrekking tot de Klassieke en Germaansche Talen

Verdam 1923. Uit de Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Taal, bl. 12 e.v.

Van Loey & Schönfeld 1970. Schönfeld’s Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands. Klankleer, vormleer [en] woordvorming.

Baldi 1990. Indo-European Languages, bl. 31-57.

Beekes 2011. Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. An introduction.

Collinge 1985. The Laws of Indo-European.

Fortson 2009. Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction. (Hoofstukke 3-8.)

Gamkrelidze & Ivanov 1990. The early history of Indo-European languages, bl. 110-116.

Kroonen 2013. Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic.

Kulikov & Lavidas (eds.) 2015. Proto-Indo-European Syntax and its Development.

Mendoza, e.a. 2016. Manual of Indo-European Linguistics. Volume II – Nominal and Verbal Morphology.

Pereltsvaig 2012. Languages of the World. An introduction, bl. 27 e.v.

Quiles & López-Menchero 2011. A Grammar of Modern Indo-European.

Ringe 2008. From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic. (Hoofstuk 2, bl. 4-66.)

Watkins 2011. The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.

Delbrück 2015. Einleitung in das Studium der indogermanischen Sprachen.

Hirt 2009a [1927]. Indogermanische Grammatik, Vol. 3.

Hirt 2009b [1928]. Indogermanische Grammatik, Vol. 4.

Hirt 2009a [1929]. Indogermanische Grammatik, Vol. 5.

Hirt 2009a [1934]. Indogermanische Grammatik, Vol. 6.

3.4.2                   Die vroegste splitsing van Indo-Europees

3.4.2.1                Satem-tale

3.4.2.2                Centum-tale

Raidt 1991a. Afrikaans en sy Europese Verlede, bl. 6-7.

Van der Merwe, H.J.J.M. 1971b. Taalverwantskap, -soorte en -indeling, bl. 48-50.

Van Vuuren 2000. Ooreenkomste tussen Noors, Afrikaans.

De Vaan 2012. Wanneer zijn talen familie van elkaar? Over oertalen en taalverwantschap.

De Groot 1968. Inleiding tot de Algemene Taalwetenschap; tevens, inleiding tot de grammatica van het hedendaagse Nederlands, bl.15-16.

Fromkin e.a. 1986. Universele taalkunde, bl. 290-292.

Geerts 1979. Voorlopers en Varianten van het Nederlands, bl.13-14.

Verdam 1923. Uit de Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Taal, bl. 12-13.

Barber 1975. The Flux of Language, bl. 87-89.

Bloomfield 1976. Language, bl. 315-316.

Lehmann 1962. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction, bl. 26-28.

3.5   Die effek van die splitsing vir die ontwikkeling van Afrikaans

Samevatting