Hoofstuk 4

  1. Inleiding
  2. Hoe word tale geklassifiseer?

De Groot 1968. Inleiding tot de Algemene Taalwetenschap; tevens, inleiding tot de grammatica van het hedendaagse Nederlands, bl. 23-25.

Anttila 1972. An Introduction to Historical and Comparative Linguistics, (Hoofstuk 16, bl. 310-322.)

Crystal 2010. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Linguistics, bl. 303-305, 1987: 33

Lehmann 1962. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction.

Prokosch 1939. A Comparative Germanic Grammar.

Gavin, M. 2017. Why do human beings speak so many languages? Geplaas 16 Julie 2017. http://theconversation.com/why-do-human-beings-speak-so-many-languages-75434

2.1  ʼn Geografiese (of: areale) indeling

De Groot 1968. Inleiding tot de Algemene Taalwetenschap; tevens, inleiding tot de grammatica van het hedendaagse Nederlands, bl. 23-25.

Campbell, L. 2004. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 12, bl. 299-310.)

Crystal 2010. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 50, bl. 302-305.)

Dixon 2001. Areal Diffusion and Genetic Inheritance. Problems in Comparative Linguistics.

2.2            ʼn Etnografiese indeling

Jordaan, W. 2001. Gevaarlike rassisme-‘erflating’ vir wit, swart.

Jordaan, W. 2011. Die etimologie van ras.

Lecoutere & Grootaers 1948. Inleiding tot de Taalkunde en tot de Geschiedenis van het Nederlands, bl. 32-36.

De Groot 1968. Inleiding tot de Algemene Taalwetenschap; tevens, inleiding tot de grammatica van het hedendaagse Nederlands, bl. 23-25.

Ashcroft 2001. Language and race.

Sapir 2001. Language, race and culture.

2.3            ʼn Genealogiese indeling

2.3.1         Gesoek: verwantskap

2.3.2         Sanskrit en vergelykend-historiese taalondersoek: die basis vir die genealogiese benadering

2.3.3         Beperkinge van die genealogiese metode

Venter, H. 1975a. Die verwantskap van Afrikaans met ander tale, bl. 11-12.

Jespersen 1922. Language. Its nature and development, bl. 3-4.

Lehmann 1962. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 2, bl. 7.)

2.4            ʼn Tipologiese indeling

Lecoutere & Grootaers 1948. Inleiding tot de Taalkunde en tot de Geschiedenis van het Nederlands, bl. 44-49.

Anoniem 2010. Linguistic typology, bl. 1-19.

Anoniem 2011. Language typology.

Crystal 2010. The Cambridge Encyclopeadia of Language, bl. 303.

Finegan & Besnier 1989. Language – Its structure and Use, bl. 247-266.

Lehmann 1962. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction, bl. 51-62.

Lehmann 1981a. The Great Underlying Ground-Plan, bl. 3-56.

Lehmann 1981b. English: A Characteristic SVO language, bl. 169-222.

Lehmann 1981c. Toward an Understanding of the Profound Unity Underlying Languages, bl. 395-430.

O’Grady e.a. 2009. Contemporary Linguistics. An introduction, bl. 307-320.

Shibatami & Bynon 1999. Approaches to Language Typology: A Conspectus, bl. 1-25.

Shibatami & Bynon (eds.) 1999. Approaches to Language Typology.

Sinha 2005. Modern Linguistics, bl. 140-147.

Song 2001. Linguistic typology. Morphology and syntax.

Song (ed.) 2011. The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Typology.

Warsi 2007a. Typological classification of language.

Internetskakels

Wikipedia 2013ww. Linguistic typology.

Wikipedia 2013ggg. Morphological typology.

Wikipedia 2013hhh. Fusional languages.

2.4.1         ʼn Fonetiese tipologie

Downing & Rialland (eds.) 2017. Intonation in African Tone Languages.

2.4.2         ʼn Fonologiese tipologie

Anoniem 2010. Linguistic typology, bl. 18-19.

Crystal 2010. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Linguistics, bl. 302-304.

Downing & Rialland (eds.) 2017. Intonation in African Tone Languages.

Finegan & Besnier 1989. Language – Its structure and Use, bl. 256-266.

Lehmann 1962. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction, bl. 60-62.

Lehmann 1981a. The Great Underlying Ground-Plan, bl. 3 e.v.

O’Grady e.a. 2009. Contemporary Linguistics. An introduction, bl. 309-314.

Winter 1973. Areal Linguistics: some general considerations.

Robins 1968. General Linguistics: An Introductory Survey, bl. 110-112, 328-329.

Warsi 2007a. Typological classification of language.

De Groot 1968. Inleiding tot de Algemene Taalwetenschap; tevens, inleiding tot de grammatica van het hedendaagse Nederlands, bl. 23-25.

Lecoutere & Grootaers 1948. Inleiding tot de Taalkunde en tot de Geschiedenis van het Nederlands, bl. 44-49.

Internetskakel

Wikipedia 2013ww. Linguistic typology.

2.4.3         Sintaktiese tipologie

Anoniem 2010. Linguistic typology, bl. 9-17.

Anoniem 2011. Language typology.

Cloutier 2009. West-Germanic OV and VO. The status of exceptions.

Comrie e.a. 2010. The Atlas of Languages. The origin and development of languages throughout the world, bl. 19-22.

Finegan & Besnier 1989. Language – Its structure and Use, bl. 260-266.

Greenberg (ed.) 1966. Universals of language.

Greenberg 1966. Some universals of grammar with particular reference to the order of meaningful elements, bl. 73-113.

Lehmann 1962. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 3.)

Lehmann 1981 (ed.). Syntactic typology.  (Vergelyk die hoofstukke van Kuno oor Japannees as ‘n tipiese OV-taal, Chapin oor die taal van “Easter Island” as ʼn tipiese VSO-taal, en Lehmann oor Engels as ʼn tipiese SVO-taal.)

Lehmann 1981a. The Great Underlying Ground-Plan, bl. 3 e.v.

O’Grady e.a. 2009. Contemporary Linguistics. An introduction, bl. 316-319.

Robins 1968. General Linguistics: An Introductory Survey. (Hoofstuk 8.2.)

Warsi 2007a. Typological classification of language.

Internetskakel

Wikipedia 2013ww. Linguistic typology.

2.4.4         ʼn Morfologiese tipologie

AKE 1963: 23-24.

Odendal 1975. Aspekte van taal, bl. 39-41.

Van der Merwe, H.J.J.M. 1971b. Taalverwantskap, -soorte en -indeling, bl. 43-44.

Fromkin e.a. 1994. Universele Taalkunde – Een Inleiding in de Algemene Taalwetenschap, bl. 277-288.

Anoniem 2010. Linguistic typology, bl. 5-9.

Anoniem 2011. Language typology.

Fromkin & Rodman 1974. An introduction to language, bl. 230-234.

Greenberg (ed.) 1966. Universals of language.

Lehmann 1962. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction, bl. 58-61.

Lehmann 1981a. The Great Underlying Ground-Plan, bl. 24-26.

O’Grady e.a. 2009. Contemporary Linguistics. An introduction, bl. 307-320.

Prokosch 1939. A Comparative Germanic Grammar.

Robins 1968. General Linguistics: An Introductory Survey. (Hoofstuk 8, bl. 331-336.)

Sayce 2015 [1880]. Introduction to the Science of Language. 2 vol. (Hoofstuk 8.)

Warsi 2007a. Typological classification of language.

Internetskakels

Wikipedia 2013ggg. Morphological typology.

Wikipedia 2013hhh. Fusional languages.

-2.4.4.1    Analities (eenlettergrepige stam)

2.4.4.2     Agglutinerend (stam + affikse)

2.4.4.3 Flekterend (stam + affikse vorm geheel)

2.4.4.4     Polisintetiese tale

2.4.4.5     Sintetiese indekse

Anoniem 2011. Language typology.

Anttila 1972. An Introduction to Historical and Comparative Linguistics, bl. 314-316.

Greenberg 1955. Studies on African Linguistic Classification.

Lehmann 1962. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction, bl. 52-61

Finck 1923. Die Haupttypen des Sprachbaus.

Internetskakel

Wikipedia 2013ww. Linguistic typology.

2.4.4.6     En Afrikaans?

Anoniem 2010. Linguistic typology, bl. 5-7.

Trudgill 2012. On the sociolinguistic typology of linguistic complexity loss, bl. 90-95.

Internetskakels

Wikipedia 2013ggg. Morphological typology.

Wikipedia 2013hhh. Fusional languages.

2.4.4.7     Besinning

AKE 1963: 23-24.

Van der Merwe, H.J.J.M. 1971b. Taalverwantskap, -soorte en -indeling, bl. 43-44.

Lecoutere & Grootaers 1948. Inleiding tot de Taalkunde en tot de Geschiedenis van het Nederlands, bl. 44-46.

Anoniem 2010. Linguistic typology, bl. 3-4.

Campbell & Poser 2008. Language Classification. History and Method.

Fromkin & Rodman 1974. An introduction to language, bl. 231-234.

Greenberg 1973. The typological method, bl. 149-193.

Prokosch 1939. A Comparative Germanic Grammar.

Warsi 2007a. Typological classification of language.

Internetskakels

Wikipedia 2013ggg. Morphological typology.

Wikipedia 2013hhh. Fusional languages.

2.4.5         ʼn Semantiese tipologie

2.4.6     Die nut van ʼn tipologiese indeling

  • Watter metode gee die beste resultate?
  1. Genealogiese taalklassifikasie

3.1        Wat behels genealogiese klassifikasie?

Lecoutere & Grootaers 1948. Inleiding tot de Taalkunde en tot de Geschiedenis van het Nederlands, bl. 44-46.

De Groot 1968. Inleiding tot de Algemene Taalwetenschap. (Hoofstuk 1, bl. 12-18, 26-29; hoofstuk XIII.)

Van Oostendorp 2016b. Zijn alle talen terug te leiden op één oertaal?

Akmajian e.a. 2010. Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication. (Hoofstuk 8, bl. 343-351.)

Baldi 1990. Indo-European languages, bl. 21-45.

Barber 1965. The Story of Language. (bl. 67-69; Hoofstukke IV-V.)

Bauer e.a. 2006. Language Matters. (Hoofstuk 4.)

Bergmann e.a. (eds.) 2010. Language Files: Materials for an Introduction to Language and Linguistics. (File 10.2)

Bloomfield 1976. Language. (Hoofstuk 1, bl. 11-14, 298-299, 319; ook Hoofstukke 4, 17 en 18.)

Campbell, L. 2004. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 13, bl. 311-326, 344-362.)

Crystal 2010. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, bl. 302-305.

Dediu 2015. An Introduction to Genetics for Language Scientists: Current Concepts, Methods, and Findings.

Finegan & Besnier 1989. Language – Its structure and Use, bl. 278-281.

Fromkin & Rodman 1974. An introduction to language, bl. 236-247.

Greenberg & Croft (eds.) 2005. Genetic Linguistics.

Lehmann 1962. Historical Linguistics: an Introduction. (Hoofstuk 2.)

Nichols 2011. Monogenesis or polygenesis: a single ancestral language for all humanity?

Nichols 2012. Macrofamilies, Macroareas, and Contact, bl. 361-379.

Noonan 2010. Genetic Classification, and Language Contact, bl. 48-65.

Robins 1968. General Linguistics: An Introductory Survey. (Hoofstuk 8.1, bl. 294-324.)

Trask 2015. Trask’s Historical Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 7, bl. 164-169.)

Wichmann 2010. Internal language classification, bl. 70-86.

Brown C.H. 2017. Evaluating proposals of language genealogical relationship. Language Dynamics and Change, 7(2): 252-285.

3.2                Beperkinge van die genealogiese metode

Lecoutere & Grootaers 1948. Inleiding tot de Taalkunde en tot de Geschiedenis van het Nederlands. (Hoofstuk 3, bl. 51-71.)

Akmajian e.a. 2010. Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication. (Hoofstuk 8, bl. 349-351.)

Baldi 1990. Indo-European languages, bl. 23-35.

Crystal 2010. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, bl. 302-305.

Robins 1988. General Linguistics: An Introductory Survey. (Hoofstuk 8.1, bl. 294-324.)

3.3        Hoe word verwantskap vasgestel?

3.3.1            Die historiese metode

Aalbrecht 2013. Taal voor in bed, op het toilet of in bad, bl. 47-48.

De Groot 1968. Inleiding tot de Algemene Taalwetenschap, bl. 383-384.

Bloomfield 1976. Language, bl. 281-296.

Campbell, L. 2004. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 14, bl. 327-338.)

Campbell, L. 2013. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 14.)

Schendl 2001. Historical linguistics, bl. 11-15.

3.3.2            Die vergelykende metode

Conradie, C.J. 1986. Taalgeskiedenis, bl. 40-42.

Anttila 1972. An Introduction to Historical and Comparative Linguistics. (Deel III, bl. 207-287.)

Bergmann e.a. (eds.) 2010. Language Files: Materials for an Introduction to Language and Linguistics. (File 10.4)

Bloomfield 1976. Language. (Hoofstuk 18.)

Bowern & Koch 2004. Australian Languages. Classification and the Comparative Method.

Campbell, L. 2003a. How to show languages are related: Methods for distant genetic relationship, bl. 262-282.

Campbell, L. 2003b. Beyond the comparative method, bl. 33-57.

Campbell, L. 2004. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 5, bl. 122-170.)

Campbell, L. 2013. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 5.)

Campbell & Mixco 2007. A Glossary of Historical Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 5.)

Clackson 2007. Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, bl. 27 e.v.

Collinge 1990. Language as it evolves: tracing its forms and families, bl. 878-899

Crowley 2010. An introduction to historical linguistics. (Hoofstuk 5, bl. 90-121.)

Crystal 2010. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, bl. 292-293.

Dimmendaal 2011. Historical Linguistics and the Comparative Study of African Languages.

Dixon 2001. Areal Diffusion and Genetic Inheritance. Problems in Comparative Linguistics.

Durie & Ross 1996. The Comparative Method Reviewed: Regularity and Irregularity in Language Change.

Finegan & Besnier 1989. Language – Its Structure and Use, bl. 281 e.v.

Fox 1995. Linguistic Reconstruction. An Introduction to Theory and Method, bl. 17-144.

Harrison 2003. On the limits of the Comparative Method, bl. 213-240.

Hewson, 2010. Sound change and the comparative method: The science of historical reconstruction, bl. 39-51.

Hudson-Williams 1951 [1935]. A Short Introduction to the Study of Comparative Grammar (Indo-European).

Jeffers & Lehiste 1979. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics, bl. 17-36.

Lehmann 1962. Historial Linguistics: An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 5, bl. 83-97.)

Palmer, L.R. 1972. Descriptive and Comparative Linguistics. A critical introduction, bl. 207-340.

Polomé & Winter (eds.) 1992. Reconstructuring Languages and Cultures.

Ross, P.E. 1991. Hard words, bl. 70-79.

Schendl 2001. Historical linguistics, bl. 15-21.

Trask 2007. Trask’s Historical Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 8.)

Trask 2015. Trask’s Historical Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 8.)

Wardhaugh 2006. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. (Hoofstuk 10, bl. 188-192.)

Wichmann 2010. Internal language classification, bl. 70-86.

  • Webblad

Santa Fe 2013. “Evolution of Human Language, An international project on the linguistic prehistory of humanity” (Santa Fe Instiute, VSA) – http://ehl.snatafe.edu/intro1.htm

3.3.3                   Interne rekonstruksie

Conradie, C.J. 1988. Taalgeskiedenis, bl. 42-44.

Van der Merwe, H.J.J.M. 1971b. Taalverwantskap, -soorte en -indeling, bl. 42-43.

De Groot 1968. Inleiding tot de Algemene Taalwetenschap. (Hoofstuk II, bl. 10-25.)

Lecoutere & Grootaers 1948. Inleiding tot de Taalkunde en tot de Geschiedenis van het Nederlands, bl. 47-48.

Van den Toorn 1987. Nederlandse taalkunde.

Anderson, J.M. 2010. Historical linguistics, bl. 209-211.

Anttila 1972. An Introduction to Historical and Comparative Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 12, bl. 264-273.)

Arlotto 1981. Introduction to historical linguistics, bl. 112-114.

Baldi 1990. Indo-European languages, bl. 21-36.

Bloomfield 1976. Language, bl. 298 e.v.

Bolinger 1975. Aspects of Language, bl. 449-452.

Campbell, L. 2004. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 8, bl. 225-243.)

Campbell, L. 2013. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 8.)

Crowley 2010. An introduction to historical linguistics. (Hoofstuk 6, bl.122-132.)

Jeffers & Lehiste 1979. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics, bl. 37-54

Lehmann 1962. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 6, bl. 99-106.)

Robins 1968. General Linguistics: An Introductory Survey, bl. 319-320.

Trask 2007. Trask’s Historical Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 9.)

Trask 2015. Trask’s Historical Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 9.)

Schendl 2001. Historical linguistics, bl. 22-23.

Wardhaugh 2006. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. (Hoofstuk 10, bl. 187 e.v. )

3.3.4                   Gebruik van die tegnologie

Kraaijvanger 2013. Onze voorouders uit de Ijstijd gebruikten ongeveer dezelfde woorden als wij.

Anthony & Ringe 2015. The Indo-European Homeland from Linguistic and Archeological Perspectives, bl. 214-216.

Atkinson & Gray 2006. How old is the Indo-European family? Progress or more moths to the flame?, bl. 91-109.

Bakker e.a. 2009. Adding typology to lexicostatistics: A combined approach to language classification.

Campbell, L. 2004. Historical linguistics. An introduction. (Hoofstuk 6, bl. 177-186.)

Campbell, L. 2013. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 17.)

Cowan 1962. Statistical determination of linguistic relationships, bl. 57-96.

Embleton 1986. Statistics in Historical Linguistics.

Fisher & Vernes 2015. Genetics and the Language Sciences, bl. 289-310.

Holman 2010. Do languages originate and become extinct at constant rates?, bl. 214-225.

McMahon & McMahon 2005. Language Classification by Numbers.

Pericliev 2011. Profiling language families by their kin term patterns: A computational approach.

Smith, A.D.M. 2008. Protolanguage reconstructed, bl. 100-116.

Trask 2015. Trask’s Historical Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 12.)

Wade 2011. Phonetic clues hint language is Africa-born.

Wichmann 2010. Internal language classification, bl. 70-86.

Wichmann e.a 2010. Homelands of the world’s language families: A quantitative approach, bl. 247-276.

3.4        Kriteria vir verwantskap

3.4.1                   Fonetiese ooreenkoms

Anderson, J.M. 2010. Historical linguistics, bl. 209-211.

Bloomfield 1976. Language, bl. 300-320.

Campbell, L. 2003. How to show languages are related: Methods for distant genetic relationship, bl. 266-268, 273-277.

Campbell, L. 2004. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction, bl. 125-164, 348-350.

Campbell, L. 2013. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction. (Hoofstukke 5, 14.)

Downing & Rialland (eds.) 2017. Intonation in African Tone Languages.

Kaiser & M Shevoroshkin 1988. Nostratic, bl. 309-329.

O’Grady e.a. 2009. Contemporary Linguistics. An introduction, bl. 309-314.

Schendl 2001. Historical linguistics, bl. 17-21.

3.4.2                   Morfologiese en sintaktiese ooreenkomste

Bubenik 2010. Change in grammatical categories.

Campbell, L. 2003. How to show languages are related: Methods for distant genetic relationship, bl. 268-270.

Campbell, L. 2004. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction, bl. 350-352.

Faarlund 2010. Word order.

Kaiser & M Shevoroshkin 1988. Nostratic, bl. 309-329.

O’Grady e.a. 2009. Contemporary Linguistics. An introduction, bl. 314-318.

Palmer, L.R. 1972. Descriptive and Comparative Linguistics. A critical introduction, bl. 236-254.

3.4.3                   Leksikologiese ooreenkoms

Campbell, L. 2003. How to show languages are related: Methods for distant genetic relationship, bl. 271-274.

Campbell, L. 2004. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction, bl. 352-362.

Campbell, L. 2013. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction. (Hoofstuk 9.)

3.4.4                   Die rol van etimologie

Nieuwenhuijsen 2005. Het verschijnsel Taal. Een kennismaking, bl. 113-114.

Van den Toorn 1987. Nederlandse taalkunde, bl. 45-47.

Dinneen 1995. General Linguistics, bl. 199-230.

Palmer, L.R. 1972. Descriptive and Comparative Linguistics. A critical introduction, bl. 300-340.

Velasquez-Manoff, M. 2007. Linguists seek a time when we spoke as one.

  • Webblad

“The tower of Babel” – http://starling.rinet.ru.maps/maps20.php Oor die etimologieë van tale volgens die indeling in taalgroepe.

  • Etimologiese woordeboeke vir Nederlands

De Vries, J. 1987. Nederlands Etymologisch Woordenboek.

Philippa e.a. 2009. Etymologisch woordenboek van het Nederlands (EWN).

Van der Sijs & Van Veen 1997. Etymologisch woordenboek.

Van der Sijs 2002. Chronologisch woordenboek. De ouderdom en herkomst van onze woorden en betekenissen.

Van der Sijs (red.) 2013. Van Dale Groot etymologisch woordenboek.

Verwijs & Verdam 1998. Middelnederlands. Woordenboek en teksten, CD-ROM.

Webblad: www.etymologiebank.nl (sedert 2010)

  • Etimologiese woordeboeke vir Afrikaans

Nienaber & Boshoff 1967. Afrikaanse Etimologieë.

Prinsloo, A.F. 2004. Spreekwoorde en waar hulle vandaan kom.

Van Wyk e.a. 2003. Etimologiewoordeboek van Afrikaans (EWA).

Van Wyk e.a. 2007. Etimologiewoordeboek van Afrikaans, Supplement.

3.5        Grade van verwantskap

Van den Toorn 1987. Nederlandse taalkunde, bl. 15-17.

Bloomfield 1975, Language, bl. 13-15.

Lehmann 1962. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction, bl. 18-20.

Robins 1968. General Linguistics: An Introductory Survey, bl. 304-306.

  • Samevatting
  1. Die genealogiese INDELING van die tale van die wêreld
  • Die indeling van die tale in die wêreld

AKE 1963: 23-29.

Troskie 2010. Nkosi, sikelel’ iAfrikaans.

Beekes 1990. Vergelijkende Taalwetenschap: Tussen Sanskrit en Nederlands. Een inleiding in de vergelijkende Indo-Europese taalwetenschap, bl. 24-57.

Comrie e.a. 1998. De grote taalatlas: oorsprong en ontwikkeling van taal en schrift in de gehele wêreld.

De Vaan 2012. Wanneer zijn talen familie van elkaar? Over oertalen en taalverwantschap.

De Groot 1968. Inleiding tot de Algemene Taalwetenschap. (Hoofstuk 2, bl. 12-23.)

Lecoutere & Grootaers 1948. Inleiding tot de Taalkunde en tot de Geschiedenis van het Nederlands, bl. 48-72.

Muysken 1999. Talen. De toren van Babel, bl. 18-29.

Nieuwenhuijsen 2005. Het verschijnsel Taal. Een kennismaking, bl. 108-130.

Verdam 1923. Uit de Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Taal, bl. 5 e.v.

Akmajian e.a. 2010. Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication. (Hoofstuk 8, bl. 321-356.)

Allan (ed.) 2013. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Linguistics. (Deel VI oor taalverwantskap.)

Anderson, J.M. 2010. Historical linguistics, bl. 212-216.

Andresen & Carter 2015. Languages in the World. How History, Culture, and Poltics Shape Language.

Anttila 1972. An Introduction to Historical and Comparative Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 16.)

Arlotto 1972. Introduction to Historical Linguistics. (Hoofstukke 4 & 8.)

Barber 1965. The Flux of Language, bl. 70 e.v.

Beekes 2011 Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. An introduction.

Benveniste 1973. Indo-European Language and Society.

Bloomfield 1976. Language. (Hoofstuk 4.)

Campbell, L. 2004. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction, bl. 184 e.v.

Campbell, L. 2013. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction. (Hoofstukke 6, 16.)

Clackson 2007. Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, bl. 20-26.

Comrie 1990. Languages of the World: Who speaks what. (Hoofstuk 26, bl. 956-983.)

Dalby 1998. Dictionary of Languages.

Ethnologue 17 (2013).

Ethnologue 18 (2016).

Finegan & Besnier 1989. Language – Its Structure and Use. (Hoofstuk 9, bl. 294-312.)

Heine & Nurse (eds.) 2000. African languages. An introduction.

Herbert (ed.) 1993. Foundations in Southern African Linguistics. (’n Goeie oorsig.)

Haspelmath e.a. (eds.) 2005. The world atlas of language structures. (http://wals.info)

Heine & Nurse (eds.) 2011. A Linguistic Geography of Africa.

Janson 2012. The History of Languages. An introduction, bl. 24-48.

Katzner 1975. The Languages of the World.

Lockwood 1969. Indo-European Philology, bl. 34-46.

Lyovin 1997. An introduction to the languages of the world.

Lyovin e.a. 2016. Introduction to the Languages of the World.

McMahon & McMahon 2005. Language Classification by Numbers.

Meier-Brügger e.a. 2003. Indo-European Linguistics.

Misha 2005. Modern Linguistics, bl. 118-139.

Multitree 2009. Multitree: A digital library of language relationships. http://multitree.org/[1]

O’Grady e.a. 2009. Contemporary Linguistics. An introduction, bl. 320-355.

Ostler 2006. Empires of the Word. A language history of the world, bl. 523-534.

Palmer, L.R. 1972. Descriptive and Comparative Linguistics. A critical introduction, bl. 383-391.

Poole 1999. An Introduction to Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 11, bl. 145-175.)

Robins 1968. General Linguistics: An Introductory Survey. (Hoofstuk 8.)

Ross, P.E. 1991. Hard words, bl. 70-79.

Ruhlen 1987. A guide to the World’s Languages. Vol. 1: Classification.

Trask 2007. Trask’s Historical Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 7, bl. 176 e.v.)

Trask 2015. Trask’s Historical Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 7, bl. 164-184.)

Voegelin & Voegelin 1977. Classification and Index of the World’s Languages.

Voyles & Barrack 2014. A Structural History of the German Language. (Hoofstuk 2.)

Wurm e.a. (eds.) 1996. Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas.

Dixon, R.M.W. 2016. Are some languages better than others? Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gavin, M. 2017. Why do human beings speak so many languages? Geplaas 16 Julie 2017. http://theconversation.com/why-do-human-beings-speak-so-many-languages-75434 

Internetskakel

Wikipedia 2013c. Indo-Europese tale.

  • Oor besondere tale en taalgroepe

Abbi 2013. A Grammar of the Great Andamenese Language. An Ethnolinguistic Study.

Abondolo (ed.) 1998. The Uralic Languages.

Aikhenvald 2012. The Languages of the Amazon.

Allen 1999. Middle Egyptian. An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs.

Allen 2013. The Ancient Egyptian Language.

Andronov 2003. A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages.

Bender 2003. The Nilo-Saharan languages.

Bielec 2012. Polish. An Essential Grammar.

Blust 2009. The Austronesian Languages.

Britannica 2013. Uralic languages 2013.

Bryce 1997. The Kingdom of the Hittites.

Campbell, G. 2012. Specimens of Languages of India. Including those of the Aboriginal Tribes of Bengal, the Central Provinces, and the Eastern Frontier.

Cardona & Jain (eds.) 2002. The Indo-Aryan Languages.

Collinder 1965. An Introduction to the Uralic Languages.

Collinder e.a. 1969. Survey of the Uralic Languages.

Comrie & Corbett (eds.) 2012. The Slavonic Languages..

Cubberley 2002. Russian. A linguistic introduction.

Dixon 1979. Handbook of Australian Languages, Vol. 1.

Dixon 2002. Australian Languages: Their Nature and development.

Downing & Rialland (eds.) 2017. Intonation in African Tone Languages.

Erman 2012. Egyptian Grammar.

Folker 2013. A grammar of Hinuq.

Frajzyngier & Shay (eds.) 2012. The Afroasiatic Languages.

Frellesvig & Whitman 2008. Proto-Japanese. Issues and prospects.

Hajdú 1963. The Samoyed peoples and languages.

Hajdú 1975. Finno-Ugrian languages and peoples.

Hayes 1999. Sumerian.

Hewitt 2006. Introduction to the Study of the Languages of the Caucasus.

Howison 2013 [1801]. A Dictionary of the Malay Tongue.

Janhuman (ed.) 2003. The Mongolic Languages.

Johanson & Csato (eds.) 1998. The Turkic Languages.

Kachru 2014. Hindi.

Khan, G. 2012. Encyclopedia of Hebrew language and linguistics.

Kahn, L. & A.D. Rubin (eds.) 2015. Handbook of Jewish Languages.

Kamusella e.a. (eds.) 2015. The Palgrave Handbook of Slavic Languages, Identities and Borders.

Kikusawa 2015. The Austronesian language family, bl. 657-674.

Klamer 2014. The Alor-Pantar languages. History and typology.

Kortlandt 2010. Studies in Germanic, Indo-European and Indo-Uralic.

Krishnamurti 2003. The Dravidian Languages.

Kuz’mina & Mallory 2007. The Origin of the Indo-Iranians.

Lynch e.a. 2001. The Oceanic Languages.

Lyovin e.a. 2016. Introduction to the Languages of the World.

Maiden e.a. (eds.) 2010. The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages. Vol. 1.

Maiden e.a. (eds.) 2013. The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages. Vol. 2.

Marcantonio 2002. The Uralic Language Family. Facts, Myths and Statistics.

Marsden 2013 [1812]. A Dictionary and Grammar of the Malayan Languages.

Mathias & Sidwell (eds.) 2014. The Handbook of Austroasiatic Languages.

Matras 2002. Romani. A linguistic introduction.

Matthews 1994. Greek and Latin Linguistics.

Matthews 2013 [1953]. The Structure and Development of Russian.

Mithun 2001. The Languages of Native North-America.

Morfill 2014a. Simplified Grammar of the Serbian Language.

Morfill 2014b. A Short Grammar of the Bulgarion Language.

Muller 1964. The World’s Living Languages. Basic facts of their structure, kinship, location and number of speakers.

Nesset 2015. How Russian Came To Be the Way It Is: A Student’s Guide to the History of the Russian Language.

Press 2007. A History of the Russian Language and its Speakers.

Sidwell 2009. Classifying the Austroasiatic languages.

Sidwell 2015. The Palaungic Languages: Classification, Reconstruction and Comparative Lexicon.[2]

Sims-Williams (ed.) 2002. Indo-Iranian languages and peoples

Singer 2013. The Hungarian Language.

Sohn 2001. The Korean Language.

Spolsky 2014. The Languages of the Jews.

Steever (ed.) 1997. The Dravidian Languages.

Subbārāo 2012. South Asian languages. A Syntactic Typology.

Sun 2006. Chinese. A linguistic introduction.

Sussex & Cubberley 2011. The Slavic Languages.

Thompson, H-R. 2012. Bengali.

Tol & Genis (eds.) 2015. Bibliography of Slavic Linguistics, 2000-2014

Thurgood & LaPolla (eds.) 2002. The Sino-Tibetan Languages.

Tranter (ed.) 2012. The Languages of Japan and Korea.

Vinokur 2010 [1977]. The Russian language. A brief history.

Wang & Sun 2015. The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Linguistics.

Windfuhr 2002. The Iranian Languages.

Xianling e.a. (eds.) 1998. Fragments of the Tocharian A Maitreyasamiti-Nataka of the Xinjiang Museum, China.[3]

Zürcher 2003. Turkey: a Modern History.

Le Fleming, S. & S.E. Kay 2017 (4th ed.). Colloquial Russian. The Complete Course For Beginners. Londen: Routledge (Taylor and Francis).

Kandybowicz, J. & H. Kandybowicz (eds.) 2017. Africa’s Endangered Languages. Documentary and Theoretical Approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Essegbey, J.; B. Henderson & F. Mc Laughlin (eds.) 2017. Language Documentation and Endangerment in Africa. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Let Wel: Luraghi & Bubenik 2010. Historical Linguistics: History, Sources and Resources, bl. 26-35 dui ‘n aantal korpusse en databasisse aan oor die volgende tale, taalgroepe en taalfases: Egipties, Akkadies, Assiries, Sumeries, Hebreeus en Aramees (soos van die Talmoed, die Dooieseerolle, Bybels in ou tale), Klassieke Arabies, Berbers, Hittities, Sanskrit (soos van die Veda’s), OudPersies, Awesties, Klassieke Grieks, Latyn (literêre korpus), OudKelties (literêre korpus van o.a. OudIers), Oud-Germaans (literêre korpus, ook die volledige teks van Wulfila se Bybelvertaling in Goties, tekste van Oudhoogduits, OudNoors), Middel-Engels (literêre korpus), Balties (soos van Littaus, Latvies), Oud-Kerkslawies (literêre korpus), Armeens, Albanies, Togaars, Altaïese tale (soos Turks, Mongools), Koreaans, Japannees, Sino-Tibetaans (Chinese tekste), inboorlingtale van die VSA, Bantoetale (soos Swahili), asook ’n vergelykende Indo-Europese korpus (Goties, Latyns, Armeens).

4.1 Die Nostratiese groep tale

  • Nostraties: Die term

Arbib & Bickerton (eds.) 2010. The Emergence of Protolanguage.

Asher & Mosely (eds.) 2007. Atlas of the World’s languages.

Bengtson 1998. Editorial: What is Nostratic?, bl. 33-38.

Bickerton 2008. But how did protolanguage actually start?, bl. 169-176.

Bomhard 2008. Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic.

Brown & Ogilvie 2009. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. (ʼn Goeie kontrolebron.)

Butts (ed.) 2015. Semitic Languages in Contact.

Clackson 2007. Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, bl. 1-26.

Frajzyngier & Shay (eds.) 2012. The Afroasiatic Languages.

Frellesvig & Whitman 2008. Proto-Japanese. Issues and prospects.

Kaiser & M Shevoroshkin 1988. Nostratic, bl. 309-329.

Kogan 2015. Genealogical Classification of Semitic.

Makki 2015. Hamito-Semitic and Austronesian Language Families. Obvious genetic relatedness.

Meier-Brügger e.a. 2003. Indo-European Linguistics.

Muller 1964. The World’s Living Languages. Basic facts of their structure, kinship, location and number of speakers.

Nichols 2011. Monogenesis or polygenesis: a single ancestral language for all humanity?

Nichols 2012. Macrofamilies, Macroareas, and Contact, bl. 361-379.

Pereltsvaig 2012. Languages of the world. An introduction, bl. 13-32, 218-226.

Wright 1991. Quest for the mother tongue, bl. 48-68.

Internetskakels

Wikipedia 2013c. Indo-Europese tale.

Wikipedia 2013y. Nostratic languages.

  • Nostraties: Oor besondere tale en taalgroepe

Abondolo (ed.) 1998. The Uralic Languages.

Allen 1999. Middle Egyptian. An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs.

Britannica 2013. Uralic languages 2013.

Bryce 1997. The Kingdom of the Hittites.

Campbell, G. 2012. Specimens of Languages of India. Including those of the Aboriginal Tribes of Bengal, the Central Provinces, and the Eastern Frontier.

Cardona & Jain (eds.) 2002. The Indo-Aryan Languages.

Collinder 1965. An Introduction to the Uralic Languages.

Collinder e.a. 1969. Survey of the Uralic Languages.

Comrie & Corbett (eds.) 2012. The Slavonic Languages..

Cubberley 2002. Russian. A linguistic introduction.

Erman 2012. Egyptian Grammar.

Folker 2013. A grammar of Hinuq.

Hajdú 1963. The Samoyed peoples and languages.

Hajdú 1975. Finno-Ugrian languages and peoples.

Hewitt 2006. Introduction to the Study of the Languages of the Caucasus.

Howison 2013 [1801]. A Dictionary of the Malay Tongue.

Janhunen (ed.) 2003. The Mongolic Languages.

Janhunen 2014. Mongolian.

Johanson & Csato (eds.) 1998. The Turkic Languages.

Kachru 2006. Hindi.

Khan 2012. Encyclopedia of Hebrew language and linguistics.

Kogan 2015. Genealogical Classification of Semitic.

Kortlandt 2010. Studies in Germanic, Indo-European and Indo-Uralic.

Kortmann & Van der Auwera (eds.) 2011. The Languages and Linguistics of Europe. (‘n Bron met besonder baie inligting oor ‘n groot verskeidenheid aspekte rakende die saamgroepering, verspreiding en ontwikkeling van tale.)

Koul & Wali 2015. Kashmiri.

Kuz’mina & Mallory 2007. The Origin of the Indo-Iranians.

Lynch e.a. 2001. The Oceanic Languages.

Maiden e.a. 2014. The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages.

Marcantonio 2002. The Uralic Language Family. Facts, Myths and Statistics.

Marsden 2013 [1812]. A Dictionary and Grammar of the Malayan Languages.

Matras 2002. Romani. A linguistic introduction.

Matras 2010. Romani in Britain. The afterlife of a language

Nesset 2015. How Russian Came To Be the Way It Is: A Student’s Guide to the History of the Russian Language.

Pereltsvaig 2012. Languages of the world. An introduction. (Hoofstuk 4, bl. 64-85 oor die Kaukasiese tale.)

Press 2007. A History of the Russian Language and its Speakers.

Ryazanova-Clarke 2014. The Russian Language outside the Nation. Speakers and Identities.

Shay & Frajzyngier (eds.) 2012. The Afroasiatic Languages.

Sidwell 2009. Classifying the Austroasiatic languages.

Sims-Williams (ed.) 2002. Indo-Iranian languages and peoples.

Suleiman 1999. The Arabic Grammatical Tradition.

Trask 2015. Trask’s Historical Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 8, bl. 220-227.)

Versteegh 2001. The Arabic Language.

Vinokur 2010 [1977]. The Russian language. A brief history.

Weninger, S. (ed.) 2011. The Semitic Languages.

Wikipedia 2013z. Uralic languages.

Windfuhr 2002. The Iranian Languages.

Zürcher 2003. Turkey: a Modern History.

Raquette, G. 2017. Eastern Turki Grammar. Practical and Theoretical with Vocabulary. Berlyn: Lincom.

Puhvel, J. 2017. Hittite Etymological Dictionary, Volume 10. Berlyn: De Gruyter Mouton.

Eberle & Schultz 2004. Koptisch. Ein Leitfaden durch das Saïdische.[4]

Die taalkundige tydskrif Lingua 115, dele 1-2 van Januarie 2005 is ’n spesiale uitgawe oor die Kaukasiese tale. Dit bevat hoofstukke oor Suid-Kaukasies (Boeder, bl. 5-89), Noordwes-Kaukasies (Hewitt, bl. 91-145) en Oos-Kaukasies (Van den Berg, bl. 147-190).

4.2    Die tale van Asië

Andronov 2003. A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages.

Baxter & De Silva 2005. A Dictionary of Kristang (Malacca Creole Portuguese).[5]

Bellwood e.a. 2004. The Austronesians in History: Common Origins and Diverse Transformations, bl. 1-16.

Bellwood e.a. (eds.) 2004, The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives.

Blust 2009. The Austronesian Languages.

Bowden & Himmelmann (eds.) 2005. Papers in Austronesian Subgrouping and Dialectology. (Verskeie hoofstukke is van toepassing.)

Bowern & Koch (ed.) 2004. Australian Languages. Classification and the Comparative Method. (Verskeie hoofstukke oor subgroeperings van die Australiese tale is van toepassing.)

Brackey 2007. The Origins of Slavonic.

Campbell, G. 2012. Specimens of Languages of India. Including those of the Aboriginal Tribes of Bengal, the Central Provinces, and the Eastern Frontier.

Comrie e.a. 2010. The Atlas of Languages. The origin and development of languages throughout the world, bl. 56-70 (hoofstuk deur Matthews), bl. 90-107 (hoofstuk deur Polinsky & Smith) en bl. 108-123 (hoofstuk deur Austin).

Crerar 2014. This Real Australian Language Map Will Blow You Away. http://www.buzzfeed.com/simoncrerar/this-real-australian-language-map-will-blow-you-away

Dixon 1979. Handbook of Australian Languages, Vol. 1.

Dixon 2002. Australian Languages: Their Nature and development.

Duff e.a. (eds.) 2013. Learning Chinese: Linguistic, Sociocultural, and Narrative Perspectives.

Enfield, N.J. & B. Comrie (eds.) 2015. Languages of Mainland Southeast Asia.

Haiman 2014. Cambodian.

Hasegawa 2014. Japanese. A Linguistic Introduction.

Hewitt 2006. Introduction to the Study of the Languages of the Caucasus.

Hole & Löbel (eds.) 2013. Linguistics of Vietnamese. An International Survey.

Howison 2013 [1801]. A Dictionary of the Malay Tongue.

Huang e.a.(eds.) 2014. The Handbook of Chinese Linguistics.

Hyslop e.a. (eds.) 2012. North East Indian languages – Vol. 4.

Hyslop e.a. (eds.) 2013. North East Indian languages – Vol. 5.

Iwasaki, N. & Y. Kumagai 2015. The Routledge Intermediate to Advanced Japanese Reader.

Iwasaki, S. 2013, Japanese.

Janhuman (ed.) 2003. The Mongolic Languages.

Kachru 2006. Hindi.

Krishnamurti 2003. The Dravidian Languages.

Lyovin e.a. 2016. Introduction to the Languages of the World.

Marsden 2013 [1812]. A Dictionary and Grammar of the Malayan Languages.

McGloin e.a. 2014. Modern Japanese Grammar Workbook.

Muller 1964. The World’s Living Languages. Basic facts of their structure, kinship, location and number of speakers. (Hoofstukke 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 en 12.)

Ray 2104. A Comparative Study of the Melanesian Island Languages.

Ross e.a. 2014. Modern Mandarin Chinese Grammar Workbook.

Shei 2014. Understanding the Chinese Language. A Comprehensive Linguistic Introduction.

Sidwell 2009. Classifying the Austroasiatic languages.

Sneddon 1996. Indonesian. A Comprehensive Grammar.

Sohn 2001. The Korean Language.

Sousa 2014. Basic Portuguese. A grammar and workbook.

Steever (ed.) 1997. The Dravidian Languages.

Subbārāo 2012. South Asian languages. A Syntactic Typology.

Sun 2006. Chinese. A linguistic introduction.

Thurgood & LaPolla (eds.) 2002. The Sino-Tibetan Languages.

Tranter (ed.) 2012. The Languages of Japan and Korea.

Tryon 2004. Proto-Austronesian and the Major Austronesian Subgroups, bl. 17-42.

Tryon & Charpentier 2004. Pacific pidgins and creoles: Origins, growth and development.

Wiedenhof 2015. A Grammar of Mandarin.

Yuming & Wei 2013. The Language Situation in China, Vol. 1.

Canepari, L. 2017.  Portuguese Pronunciation & Accents. Geo-social Applications of the Natural Phonetics & Tonetics Method.  Berlyn:

Canepari, L. & M. Cerini 2017. Chinese Pronunciation & Accents. Berlyn: Lincom GmbH.

Canepari, L. & F. Miscio 2017. Japanese Pronunciation & Accents. Geo-social Applications of the Natural Phonetics & Tonetics Method. Berlyn: Lincom GmbH.

Okamoto, S. & J.S.  Shibamoto-Smith 2016. The Social Life of the Japanese Language. Cultural Discourse and Situated Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Xu, D. 2017. The Tangwang Language. An Interdisciplinary Case Study in Northwest China. Berlyn: Springer

Klamer, M. (ed.) 2017 (2nd ed.). The Alor-Pantar languages. History and typology. Berlyn: Language Science Press.

Kobayashi, M. & B. Tirkey 2017. The Kurux Language.

4.3            Die tale van Afrika

Pretorius, W.J. 2013. Historiese oorsig en problematiek van Suid-Afrikaanse Bantutale as skryf- en onderrigtale, bl. 117-131.

Anoniem 2007. New research confirms ‘Out of Africa’ theory of human evolution.

Asante 2007. The History of Africa.

Bender 2003. The Nilo-Saharan languages.

Brown & Ogilvie 2009. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. (Goeie kontrolebron.)

Campbell & Poser 2008. Language Classification. History and Method.  (Hoofstuk 6.)

Childs 2004. An Introduction to African Languages.

Clark 1970. The Prehistory of Africa.

Dimmendaal 2011. Historical Linguistics and the Comparative Study of African Languages.

Goldenberg 2013. Semitic languages.

Greenberg 1963. The Languages of Africa.

Heine & Nurse (eds.) 2000. African languages. An introduction.

Heine & Nurse (eds.) 2011. A Linguistic Geography of Africa.

Herbert (ed.) 1993. Foundations in Southern African Linguistics. (‘n Belangrike oorsigbron.)

Hetzron (ed.) 1997. The Semitic Languages.

Hieda e.a. (eds.) 2011. Geographical Typology and Linguistic Areas. With special reference to Africa.

Hinde 2014a. The Masai Language.

Hinde 2014b. Vocabularies of the Kamba and Kikuyu Languages of East Africa. (Met Swahili-woordeskat bygevoeg.)

Holes 2004. Modern Arabic.

Janson 2012. The History of Languages. An Introduction, bl. 34-43.

Khapoya 1996. The African experience. An Introduction.

Kleifgen & Bond (eds. ) 2009. The languages of Africa and the diaspora: Educating for language awareness.

Lafkioui (ed.) 2013. African Arabic. Approaches to Dialectology.

Lipinski 2014. Semitic Linguistics in Historical Perspective.

Lyovin e.a. 2016. Introduction to the Languages of the World.

Maho 1998. Few People, many Tongues. The Languages of Namibia.

Maho 2004. How many languages are there in Africa really?

Marks 1980. South Africa – ‘Myth of the Empty land’.

Mohammed & Enendu 2015. A Practical Igbo-English Dictionary.

Mohammed & Rahila 2015. Kibaku (Chibok)-English Dictionary.

Mpiranya 2014. Swahili Grammar and Workbook.

Muller 1964. The World’s Living Languages. Basic facts of their structure, kinship, location and number of speakers. (Hoofstukke 5, 10.)

Murdock 1959. Africa, Its Peoples and Their Culture History.

Nassenstein 2017. Kisangani Swahili. Choices and Variation in a Multilingual Urban Space.

Nurse & Philippson (eds.) 2002. The Bantu Languages.

Owens 2006. A Linguistic History of Arabic.

Payne, e.a. (eds.) 2017. Diversity in African languages. Selected papers from the 46th Annual Conference on African Linguistics.

Rogan 2012. The Arabs. A history.

Sayce 2014a. Lectures upon the the Assyrian Language and Syllabary.

Sayce 2014b. An Elementary Grammar with Full Syllybary and Progressive Reading Book, of the Assyrian Language, in the Cuneiform.

Storch 2014. A Grammar of Luwo.[6]

Subbārāo 2012. South Asian languages. A Syntactic Typology.

Wenniger (ed.) 2011. The Semitic Languages.

Werner 2011 [1919]. Introductory Sketch of the Bantu Languages.

Brindle, J. 2017. A dictionary and grammatical outline of Chakali. Berlyn: Language Science Press.

Friesen, D. ; M.D. Isaac, A. Gaston & M. Samuel 2017. A grammar of Moloko. Berlyn: Language Science Press.

Jones, R.M. 2017. IlloBusa Dictionary. Berlyn: Lincom GmbH.

Jones, R.M. 2017. Kyanga Dictionary. Berlyn: Lincom GmbH.

Jones, R.M. 2017. Shanga Dictionary. Berlyn: Lincom GmbH.

Muysken, P.C. & N. Smith (eds.) 2017. Surviving the Middle Passage. The West Africa-Surinam Sprachbund. Berlyn: De Gruyter Mouton.

Thompson, H.-R. & M.T. Koroma (eds.) 2014. Krio Dictionary and Phrasebook, Krio-English/English-Krio: A language of Sierra Leone. New York: Hippocrene Books.

Jones, M.C. & D. Mooney (eds.) 2017. Creating Orthographies for Endangered Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Kandybowicz, J. & H. Kandybowicz (eds.) 2017. Africa’s Endangered Languages. Documentary and Theoretical Approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Simons, G.F. & C.D. Fennig (eds.) 2017. Ethnologue: Languages of Africa and Europe, Twentieth edition.  Dallas: SIL International Publications.

Internetskakels

Wikipedia 2013uu. Bantoetalen.

Wikipedia 2013uu. Bantu languages.

Wikipedia 2013iii. Africa.

  • Oor die Khoisan-groep

Güldemann & Fehn (eds.) 2014. Beyond ‘Khoisan’. Historical relations in the Kalahari Basin.

Janson 2012. The History of Languages. An Introduction, bl. 9-16.

Planert 2012 [1905]. Über die Sprache der Hottentotten und Buschmänner.

  • Aanlyn bronne

http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/CBOLD  (Vergelykend oor tale van Afrika)

http://www.linguistics.berkeley.edu/CBOLD/Lgs/LgsbyGN.html

http://www.bantulanguages.com/en/

4.4                       Die tale van Amerika

Beck, D. & D.B. Gerdts 2017. The Contribution of Research on the Languages of the Americas to the Field of Linguistics. International Journal of American Linguistics, 83(1).

Aikhenvald 2012. The Languages of the Amazon.

Barrie 2015. A Grammar of Onondoga.[7]

Boas 2013a [1911]. Handbook of American Indian Languages, Vol. 1, Part 1.

Boas 2013b [1922]. Handbook of American Indian Languages, Vol. 1, Part 2.

Campbell & Poser 2008. Language Classification. History and Method. (Hoofstuk 6.)

Janson 2012. The History of Languages. An Introduction, bl. 179-181.

Labrada 2015. The Mako Language: Vitality, Grammar and Classification.[8]

Lyovin e.a. 2016. Introduction to the Languages of the World.

Mithun 2001. The Languages of Native North-America.

Muller 1964. The World’s Living Languages. Basic facts of their structure, kinship, location and number of speakers. (Hoofstuk 13.)

O’Connor, L. & P. Muysken (eds.) 2014. The Native Languages of South America.

Pereltsvaig 2012. Languages of the world. An introduction. (Hoofstuk 10, bl. 183-203.)

Uhlenbeck & Snider 2013 [1905]. Outline of a Comparative Grammar of some Algonquian Languages: Ojibway, Cree, Micmac, Natick and Blackfoot.

Thomas, D.W. 2014. The recovery of the Ancient Hebrew Language. An inaugural lecture.

Simons, G.F. & C.D. Fennig (eds.) 2017. Ethnologue: Languages of the Americas and the Pacific, Twentieth edition.  Dallas: SIL International Publications.

Baran, D. 2017. Language in Immigrant America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bolanos, K. 2016. A Descriptive Grammar of Kakua. A language of Northwest Amazonia. Utrecht: LOT Publications.

Estigarribia, B. & J. Pinta (eds.) 2017. Guarani Linguistics in the 21st Century. Leiden: Brill.

  • Vergelyk http://www.tribalnationsmaps.com vir ‘n kaart asook aanvullende inligting oor die inheemse Amerikaanse stamme, waar hulle gebly het asook die tale wat hulle gepraat het.
  • In die International Journal of American Linguistics (2015) is in ʼn reeks Native American Texts Series herdrukke van publikasies (tussen 1976-1980) oor die vroeë Amerikaanse tale beskikbaar gestel. Vergelyk hiervoor: http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/series/NATAMX.html

4.5        Die Indo-Europese taalfamilie

4.5.1                   SATEM-tale

Arman, R. 2017. Dari. An Intermediate Textbook. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press.

Mitchell, R. & D. Naser 2017. A Grammar of Dari. Berlyn: Lincom

4.5.2                   CENTUM-tale

Beekes 1990. Vergelijkende taalwetenschap. Tussen Sanskrit en Nederlands, bl. 33-57.

Stevenson 1989. Atlas van de Europese talen. (Toepaslike hoofstukke.)

Stevenson 1989. Atlas van de Europese talen. (Oor die Slawiese en Baltiese tale: bl. 173-196.)

Aptroot & Hansen (eds.) 2013. Yiddisch language structures.

Arden 2014. A progressive grammar of the Telugu language.

Baldi 1990. Indo-European Languages, bl. 21-57.

Bandle e.a. (eds.) 2002. The Nordic languages. An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Vol. 1.

Bandle e.a. (eds.) 2005. The Nordic languages. An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Vol. 2.

Beekes 2011. Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. An introduction.

Brown & Ogilvie 2009. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. (Goeie kontrolebron.)

Comrie 1990 (ed.). The Major Languages of Western Europe. (Al die hoofstukke.)

Craig 2014. Modern Irish Grammar.

Eispaβ e.a. (eds.) 2007. Germanic Language Histories ‘from Below’.

Fortson 2009. Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction. (Hoofstukke 2, 9-20.)

Fortson 2015. Indo-European: methods and problems, 646-656.

Grimm 2009 [1848]. Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache.

Haugen 1990. Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, bl. 147-169.

Hawkins 1990a. Germanic languages, bl. 58-66.

Hawkins 1990b. German, bl. 100-128.

Herslund 2008. Danish.

Hudson-Williams 1951 [1935]. A Short Introduction to the Study of Comparative Grammar (Indo-European).

Janson 2012. The History of Languages. An Introduction, bl. 24-33.

Kahn, L. & A.D. Rubin (eds.) 2015, 2017. Handbook of Jewish Languages.

Kooij 1990. Dutch, bl. 129-146.

König & Van der Auwera (eds.) 1994. The Germanic languages. (Alle hoofstukke in die boek.)

Kortlandt 2010. Studies in Germanic, Indo-European and Indo-Uralic.

Kortmann & Van der Auwera (eds.) 2011. The Languages and Linguistics of Europe. (‘n Bron met besonder baie inligting oor ‘n groot verskeidenheid aspekte rakende die saamgroepering, verspreiding en ontwikkeling van tale.)

Koul & Wali 2015. Kashmiri.

Kuz’mina & Mallory 2007. The Origin of the Indo-Iranians.

Lockwood 1965. An informal history of the German language, with chapters on Dutch and Afrikaans, Frisian and Jiddisj.

Lyovin e.a. 2016. Introduction to the Languages of the World.

Muller 1964. The World’s Living Languages. Basic facts of their structure, kinship, location and number of speakers.

Oosterhof, J. 2014. Modern Dutch Grammar. A Practical Guide.

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Ostler 2006. Empires of the Word. A language history of the world, bl. 272 e.v.

Palmer, L.R. 1972. Descriptive and Comparative Linguistics. A critical introduction, bl. 383-391.

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Riad 2013. The Phonology of Swedish.

Ringe 2008. A History of English. From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic.

Ross, P.E. 1991. Hard words, bl. 70-79.

Russel 1995. An introduction to the Celtic languages.

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Sievers 2012 (1898]. Angelsächsische Grammatik.

Sims-Williams (ed.) 2002. Indo-Iranian languages and peoples.

Smith, L.C. 2012. Old Frisian. Renewed interest in an ‘old’ Germanic language.

Thrainsson e.a. 2004. Faroese. An Overview and Reference Grammar.

Van der Auwera & König (eds.) 1994. The Germanic Languages.

Woodard (ed.) 2002. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages.

Wurm e.a. (eds.) 1996. Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas.

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Wikipedia 2013j. Perzisch.

Wikipedia 2013k. Proto-Indo-Europees.

Wikipedia 2013l. Sanskriet.

Wikipedia 2013m. Prehistoric Europe.

Wikipedia 2013n. Indo-European studies.

Wikipedia 2013o. Proto-Indo-Europeans.

Wikipedia 2013p. Proto-Indo-European Urheimat hypotheses.

Wikipedia 2013ppp. Germaanse talen.

Wikipedia 2013qqq. Romaanse talen.

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Smyth 2013. A Greek Grammar for Schools and Colleges.

  • ‘n Bron oor die veranderende tale van Europe

Heine & Kuteva 2006. The Changing Languages of Europe.[9]

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Algeo 1972. Problems in the origin and development of the English language.

Beal e.a. (eds.) 2007-2013. Dialects of English. (‘n Uitgebreide reeks or die dialekte en variëteite van Engels, soos Ierse Engels, Indiese Engels, Nieu-Seelandse Engels, Singapoerse Engels, Hongkongse Engels, Skotse Engels, e.s.m.)

Bergs & Brinton (eds.) 2012. English Historical Linguistics, Vol. 2.

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Earle 2005 [1877]. A Book for the Beginner in Anglo-Saxon.

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Finegan 1990. English, bl. 67-99.

Giegerich (ed.) 2001 e.v. Reeks: Edinburgh Textbooks on the English Language. (Oor onder meer die sosiolinguistiek, historiese sosiolinguistiek, sintaksis, morfologie, fonetiek, fonologie, semantiek, pragmatiek, variëteite, ens. van Engels.)

Grant, W. & Dixon 2013. Manual of Modern Scots.

Hewings & Tagg (eds.) 2012. The Politics of English: Conflict, Competition, Co-existence.

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Kortmann & Van der Auwera (eds.) 2011. The Languages and Linguistics of Europe.

McCully & Hilles 2005. The earliest English. An introduction to Old English language.

Miller 2012. External Influence on English. From its Beginnings to the Renaissance.

Momma & Matto 2008. A companion to the history of English.

Singh 2005. The history of English. A student’s guide.

Smith, Jeremy J. 2009. Old English. A Linguistic Introduction.

Toller 2011. Outlines of the History of the English Language.

Filppula, M.; J. Klemola & D. Sharma (eds.) 2017. The Oxford Handbook of World Englishes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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MacAuley (ed.) 2008. The Celtic languages.

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Ethnologue 17 (2013) – http:///www.ethnologue.com

Glottolog – http://glottolog.org/

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Interactive world map of language distribution – http:///www.krysstal/com/spoken.htm

Map of World Languages – http://www.goethe-verlag.com/book2/index.htm

[1] Multitree is ‘n projek wat onder die beheer val van die Linguist Network: http://linguistlist.org/projects/multi-tree.cfm Dit is ‘n digitale databasis wat wetenskaplike hipoteses oor taalverwantskap bevat en derhalwe van groot nut is in die bepaal van verwantskappe tussen tale.

[2] ‘n Austroasiatiese taalgroep.

[3] Hierdie bron, die Maitreyasamiti-Nataka, is een van die belangrikste dokumente in die Boeddhiste-literatuur. Dit is geskryf in Togaars A (’n uitgestorwe Indo-Europese taal) en is in 1974 toevallig ontdek deur werkers in ’n bos naby ’n ou Boeddhiste-tempel in die Yanki-distrik in die Xinjiang-streek in China. Dit was oorspronklik geskryf in die Sentraal-Asiatiese taal Brahmi. Die bundel waarin dit opgeneem is, bevat ’n faksimilee van die fragmente, die getranslitereerde en gedeeltelik herstelde tekste, vertalings daarvan, aantekeninge daaroor, asook ’n glossarium.

[4] Kopties behoort tot die Afro-Asiatiese taalfamilie en is die finale fase van die ontwikkeling van die antieke Egiptiese taal. Dit is as spreektaal uitgesterf, maar word nog vir liturgiese doeleindes gebruik. Dit is eintlik ’n kreooltaal, wat ’n vermenging is tussen koinè Grieks en die laaste suiwer Egipties. Volgens Wikipedia 2013nnn oor Kopties is die volgende ook ter sake: “Het Koptisch werd opgetekend in het Koptische schrift, dat gedeeltelijk geschreven wordt met aangepaste Griekse lettertekens en voor een ander deel met Demotiese lettertekens (d.i. ’n skryfstelsel van Oud-Egipte. Het Koptisch is daarmee de enige Egyptische taal die niet in hiërogliefen wordt geschreven. Na de tiende eeuw werd het Koptisch zeer langzaam verdrongen door het Arabisch.”

[5] Kristang word gepraat deur ’n klein gemeenskap in Wes-Maleisië en ook deur afstammelinge van die Malacca-gemeenskap in Maleisië en Singapoer. Dié taal hou verband met Portugese kolonialisasie, maar dit is nie Portugees nie. Dit is eerder ’n kreooltaal (Malacca Kreools-Portugees) wat gebruik word as tussentaal tussen Portugees en die plaaslike tale.

[6] ’n Suid-Soedannese taal.

[7] Vgl. Barrie 2015 oor hierdie bedreigde inboorlingtaal wat in die omgewing van Ontario, Kanada en New York, VSA gepraat word.

[8] ‘n Taal wat in die Amasone in Venezuela gepraat word deur ongeveer 1 200 sprekers.

[9] In hierdie bron word daarop gewys dat die tale en dialekte van Europa al hoe meer begin ooreenstem en ook dat hierdie eenheidswordende patroon al teruggaan tot die Romeinse tydperk. Volgens Heine & Kuteva neem die verandering vinnig toe en raak dit elke Europese taal, insluitende Fins en Baskies, wat tradisioneel nie Indo-Europese tale is nie. Hierdie proses raak elke grammatikale aspek van die tale en werk so subtiel deur dat dit nie sigbaar merkbaar is nie. Volgens die outeurs is dit ’n toenemende patroon wat die taallandskap van Europa heeltemal kan verander. Salverda 2003 toon byvoorbeeld afsonderlik hiervan aan dat Engels in wese Nederlands is (“Engels is Nederlands (met velerlei bewijzen gestaafd)”) en daarvoor haal hy talle bewyse aan. Baskies word beskou as die oudste Europese taal (Stevenson 1989: 30). Dit is moeilik om Baskies op die bostaande skemas te plaas, omdat dit nie verwantskappe vertoon met Indo-Europese tale nie, maar nog steeds in Europe geleë is, naamlik in die noordelike deel van Spanje (vgl. verder Stevenson 1989: 30-33..

[10] Hierdie Romaanse taal kom voor in die noorde van Italië en word gepraat deur ongeveer 500 000 mense. Daar is reeds skriftelike rekords van hierdie taal uit 1150. In 1999 is amptelike minderheidstaalstatus aan dié taal toegeken.