Hoofstuk 3

  1. Inleiding
  2. Wat is (‘n) taal?

Coetzee, A. 2007. Wat is taal?

De Boer, B. 2012. Hoe sprak de oermens?

Lecoutere & Grootaers 1948. Inleiding tot de Taalkunde en tot de Geschiedenis van het Nederlands, bl. 11-17.

Nieuwenhuijsen 2005. Het verschijnsel TAAL. bl. 16-21.

Van der Horst, J.M. 2005. Overpeinzingen uit Leuven: 72 talen.

Barber 2009. The English language: a historical introduction, bl. 1-10.

Campbell & Mixco 2007. A GlosSary of Historical Linguistics.

Crystal 1969. What is linguistics?

Dinneen 1995. General linguistics, bl. 1-10.

Janson 2002. Speak. A short history of languages, bl. 23 e.v.

Lightbown & Spade 2006. How languages are learned.

Lyons 1981. Language and Linguistics.

McWhorter 2003. The power of Babel, bl. 1 e.v.

Poole 1999. An Introduction to Linguistics, bl. 2-21.

Sinha 2005. Modern Linguistics, bl. 13-45.


Wikipedia 2013cc. Language.

3. Hoeveel tale is daar in die wêreld?

3.1            Getalle-aanduiding problematies

Odendal 1975. Aspekte van taal, bl. 40-41.

Muysken 1999. Talen. De toren van Babel, bl. 16-19.

Nieuwenhuijsen 2005. Het verschijnsel TAAL. Een kennismaking, bl. 81-91. (oor dialek en taal)

Van der Horst, J.M. 2005. Overpeinzingen uit Leuven: 72 talen.

Anderson, S.R. 2011. How many languages are there in the world?

Janson 2002. Speak. A short history of languages, bl. 25 e.v.

Krauss 1992. The World’s Languages in Crisis, bl. 4-10.

McWhorter 2003. The power of Babel, bl. 53 e.v.

Ostler 2006. Empires of the Word: A Language History of the World, bl. 525-559.

Pereltsvaig 2012. Languages of the World. An introduction, bl. 4-6.

Voegelin & Voegelin 1977. Classification and Index of the World’s Languages.

Kotzé, E.F. 2018. Die klassifikasie van Afrikaans. Geplaas 18  April 2018. http://www.litnet.co.za/die-klassifikasie-van-afrikaans/

Ghosh, I. 2020. Ranked: The 100 Most Spoken Languages Around the World. Geplaas 15 Febr. 2020. https://www.visualcapitalist.com/100-most-spoken-languages/ 

McGregor, W.B. & S. Wichmann (eds.) 2018. The Diachrony of Classification Systems. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Fritschy, Y. 2019. De stam van het woord. Over taalevolutie en de eerste taal ter wereld. New Scientist, Pocket Science.

3.2            Oplos van die probleem

3.2.1         Onnoukeurige getalle-aanduiding

3.2.2         “Lewende” en “dooie” tale

“Unfortunately, nearly 3,000 (about 40%) of all languages are at risk of being lost, or are already in the process of dying out today.” (https://www.visualcapitalist.com/100-most-spoken-languages/”)

“When we lose a language, we don’t just lose words; we lose a whole perspective.

Among 2,500 languages are in danger of becoming extinct according to UNESCO, and some of them are spoken by only 30 people. By the turn of the century, it is estimated that at least 50 percent of the world’s current spoken languages will be extinct.” (https://matadornetwork.com/read/25-endangered-languages-need-listen-disappear/) 

There are approximately six thousand languages spoken in the world right now, and around five thousand are spoken only by indigenous peoples. Due to geographic isolation and cultural insulation, these languages are often at the greatest risk of extinction. Resígaro, an Upper Amazonian language spoken by the Arawak peoples of Peru, is considered the world’s most endangered language, with just one surviving speaker. … The great thing about languages, however, is that as long as one person still speaks it, they aren’t truly dead.” (https://matadornetwork.com/read/resigaro-endangered-amazonian-language/) 

Bron: https://www.netwerk24.com/Nuus/Algemeen/2-van-laaste-4-sprekers-van-oudste-taal-sterf-20200602

Dausab 2012. Die taal (Namataal Khoe-khoegowab).

Karsten 1999. Red ʼn taal, nie net bedreigde plante, diere, bl. 4.

Kruger, C. 2009. Ouma Katriena moenie N/uu opgee nie?

Steinman 2010. Die beeste se horings, bl. 11.

Steyn, J.C. 1999c. Wanneer ’n taal sterf, bl. 54.

Cools & Van Wynsberghe 2014. Jo Haazen: Esperanto, een geniale uitvinding!, bl. 87-89.

Comrie e.a. 1998. De grote taalatlas: oorsprong en ontwikkeling van taal en schrift in de gehele wêreld. (Deel 4, bl. 212-215.)

Grenoble 2009. Bedreigde talen, bl. 214-235.

Lučić 2000. De ondergang van het Servo-Kroatisch, bl. 230-232.

Uhlenbeck 1993. De dreiging van snelle taalsterfte. Een sinds kort onderkend mondiaal probleem, bl. 23-31.

Van Oostendorp 2012. De dode taal van het wereldproletariaat. Bij die 125ste verjaarsdag van het Esperanto, bl. 190-192.

Abley 2005. Spoken here: Travels among threatened languages.

Adelaar 2014. Endangered languages with millions of speakers: Focus on Quechua in Peru, bl. 1-12.

Arnau 2013. Reviving Catalan at School. Challenges and Instructional Approaches.

Austin 2008. Peter K. Austin’s top ten endangered languages.

Austin & Sallabank (eds.) 2011, 2015. The Cambridge Handbook of Endangered Languages.

Bathibo 2005. Language Decline in Africa. Causes, Consequences, and Challenges.

Chikasha, J. 2016. Linguistic Revitalisation: Tonga in Zimbabwe. (Ph.D.)

Comrie e.a. 2010. The Atlas of Languages. The origin and development of languages throughout the world, bl. 13-15.

Day, D. e.a. (eds.) 2016. The Journeys of Besieged Languages.

Diamond 1993. Speaking with a single tongue.

Diamond 2001. Deaths of Languages, bl. 32-38.

Dixon 1997. The Rise and Fall of Languages.

Dorian 2014. Small-Language Fates and Prospects. Lessons of Persistence and Change from Endangered Languages.

Edwards, J. 1995. Multilingualism. (Hoofstuk 4, bl. 104-123.)

Essegbey, e.a. (eds.) 2015. Language Documentation and Endangerment in Africa.

Filipović & Pütz (eds.) 2016. Endangered Languages and Languages in Danger. Issues of documentation, policy, and language rights.

Fishman (ed.) 2001. Can Threatened Languages be Saved?

Geary 1997. Speaking in tongues.

Gibbs 2002. Saving languages, bl. 63-69.

Gilfillan 2015. The fall of Afrikaans, and the rise of English.

Goodfellow (ed.) 2009. Speaking of Endangered Languages: Issues in Revitalization.

Grenoble & Whaley 2005. Saving Languages.An introduction to Language Revitalization.

Haig e.a. (eds.) 2011. Documenting Endangered Languages. Achievements and Perspectives.

Harrison 2010. The Last Speakers. The Quest to Uncover the World’s Most Endangered Languages.

Harrison, Rood & Dwyer (eds.) 2008. Lessons from Documented Endangered Languages.

Hinton (ed.) 2013. Bringing our languages home. Language revitalization for families.

Horsby 2015. Revitalizing Minority Languages. New Speakers of Breton, Yiddish and Lemko.

Jones, M. (ed.) 2015. Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages.

Jones & Ogilvie 2014. Keeping languages alvie. (Verskeie voorbeelde van bedreigde tale word uitgelig.)

Jones, M.C. & S. Ogilvie 2019. Keeping Languages Alive. Documentation, Pedagogy and Revitalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Book URL: https://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/languages-linguistics/sociolinguistics/keeping-languages-alive-documentation-pedagogy-and-revitalization?format=PB

 Many of the world’s languages have diminishing numbers of speakers and are in danger of falling silent. Around the globe, a large body of linguists are collaborating with members of indigenous communities to keep these languages alive. Mindful that their work will be used by future speech communities to learn, teach and revitalise their languages, scholars face new challenges in the way they gather materials and in the way they present their findings. This volume discusses current efforts to record, collect and archive endangered languages in traditional and new media that will support future language learners and speakers. Chapters are written by academics working in the field of language endangerment and also by indigenous people working ‘at the coalface’ of language support and maintenance. Keeping Languages Alive is a must-read for researchers in language documentation, language typology and linguistic anthropology.” (LINGUIST List: Vol-31-115. Wed Jan 08 2020. ISSN: 1069 – 4875.)

Jones & Singh 2005. Exploring Language Change. (Vergelyk die hoofstukke oor “language birth” (bl. 55-77), “language death” (bl. 78-104), “language planning and revitalization” (bl. 105-132), “language revival” (bl. 133-152).)

Knight 2004. Half of all languages face extinction this century.

Krauss 1992. The World’s Languages in Crisis, bl. 4-10.

Lightfoot 2006. How New Languages Emerge.

McMahon, C. 2016. The Revival of the Irish Language: More Widespread, Modern and Varied than Ever.

McWhorter 2003. The Power of Babel, bl. 253 e.v.

Mihas e.a. (eds.) 2013. Responses to language endangerment.

Monaghan, 2009. Languages on life support: Linguists debate their role in saving the world’s endangered languages.

Montrul 2015. The Acquisition of Heritage Languages.

Morris 2012. ‘Welsh is a wonderful gift’: speakers of the language relish new support.

Moseley (ed.) 2010a. Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages.

Moseley (ed.). 2010b. Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger. Aanlyn weergawe: http://www.unesco.org/culture/languages-atlas/

Mufwene 2000. Languages don’t kill languages; speakers do.

Murphy 2007. Vigil for the vanishing tongue.

Nettle & Romaine 2000. Vanishing voices.

O’Brien 2003a. Ancient tongues fade away.

O’Brien 2003b. Linguists battle to Save thousands of endangered languages.

Pauwels, A. 2016. Language Maintenace and Shift.

Phaliso 2016. Fitting farewell for Ouma Griet.

Pütz & Mundt (eds.) 2016. Vanishing Languages in Context. Ideological, Attitudinal and Social Identity Perspectives.

Romney 2013. Revival of nearly extinct Yurok language is a success story.

Shorris 2000. The Last Word: Can the World’s Small Languages be Saved?, bl. 35-43.

Thomason 2015. Endangered Languages. An Introduction.

Trask 2007. Trask’s Historical Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 11.)

Trask 2015. Trask’s Historical Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 11.)

Walker 2005. In defence of ‘lost’ languages.

Wilford 2007. Languages die, but not their last words.

Zuckermann 2013. Historical and moral arguments for language reclamation.

Bradley, D. & M. Bradley 2019. Language Endangerment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Book URL: https://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/anthropology/linguistic-anthropology/language-endangerment?format=PB 

Croissant, M. 2017. The endangered languages of the world in one cool map. Geplaas 16 April 2017. https://matadornetwork.com/read/endangered-languages-world-one-cool-map/

Bruikbare interaktiewe kaart.

Diskin, E. 2020. Resígaro is the Amazonian language with only one remaining speaker. Geplaas 13 Julie 2020. https://matadornetwork.com/read/resigaro-endangered-amazonian-language/ 

Dunmore, S. 2019. Language Revitalisation in Gaelic Scotland. Linguistic Practice and Ideology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Book URL: https://edinburghuniversitypress.com/book-language-revitalisation-in-gaelic-scotland.html 

Escher, K. 2017. Four things that happen when a language dies. Geplaas 17 Febr. 2017. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/four-things-happen-when-language-dies-and-one-thing-you-can-do-help-180962188/?utm_source=facebook.com&utm_medium=socialmedia

Good, J. 2017. Threatened languages and how people relate to them: a Cameroon case study. Geplaas 24 Aug. 2017. http://theconversation.com/threatened-languages-and-how-people-relate-to-them-a-cameroon-case-study-82395

Hock, H.H. & B.D. Joseph 2019. Language History, Language Change, and Language Relationship. An Introduction to Historical and Comparative Linguistics. Berlyn: De Gruyter Mouton. (Hoofstuk 15.)

Katz, B. 2017. Lost Languages Discovered in One of the World’s Oldest Continuously Run Libraries. Geplaas 5 Sept. 2017. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/long-lost-languages-found-manuscripts-egyptian-monastery-180964698/#l7C2OKpmDFkXEtma.99

Lewis, M.P. & G.F. Simons 2016. Sustaining Language Use. Perspective on Community-Based Language Development. Dallas: SIL International Publications

Pauwels, A. (ed.) 2016. Language Maintenance and Shift. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rehg, K.L. & L. Campbell (eds.) 2018. The Oxford Handbook of Endangered Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sallabank, J. 2019. Attitudes to Endangered Languages. Identities and Policies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Book URL: https://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/languages-linguistics/sociolinguistics/attitudes-endangered-languages-identities-and-policies?format=PB

Samar, R.G. & T.K. Bhatia 2017. Predictability of language death: Structural compatibility and language contact. Language Sciences, 62: 52-65.

Toivanen, R. & J. Saarikivi (eds.) 2016. Linguistic Genocide or Superdiversity? New and Old Language Diversities. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Sherris, A. & S.D. Penfield (eds.) 2019. Rejecting the Marginalized Status of Minority Languages: Educational Projects Pushing Back Against Language Endangerment. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Book URL: http://www.multilingual-matters.com/display.asp?isb=9781788926256 

Stakston, K. 2018. 25 endangered languages you need to listen to before they disappear. Geplaas 16 April 2018. https://matadornetwork.com/read/25-endangered-languages-need-listen-disappear/ 

Toivanen, R. & J. Saarikivi (eds.) 2016. Linguistic Genocide or Superdiversity? New and Old Language Diversities. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Burger, A. 2020. Twee van laaste 4 sprekers van oudste taal sterf. Beeld, 3 Junie 2020. https://www.netwerk24.com/Nuus/Algemeen/2-van-laaste-4-sprekers-van-oudste-taal-sterf-20200602

3.2.3         Die name van tale/dialekte

3.2.4         Die terminologieprobleem: taal vs. dialek

DauSab 2012. Die taal (Namataal Khoe-khoegowab).

Hafter 1970. Taal of dialek? ʼn Oorsig van die posisie van Retoromaans, bl. 31-48.

Kruger, C. 2009. Ouma Katriena moenie N/uu opgee nie?

Van Schalkwyk, D.J. 1983. Fonetiese variasie in die taal van die Rehoboth-Basters, bl. 14-16

Scholtz, L. 2001. Omvang van taalsterfte is totaal sonder weerga.

Smith, C. 2007. Vier tale van Khoisan kan uitsterf, bl. 16.

Odendal 1975. Aspekte van taal, bl. 40-41.

De Groot 1968. Inleiding tot de Algemene Taalwetenschap; tevens, inleiding tot de grammatica van het hedendaagse Nederlands, bl. 10-12.

Muysken 1999. Talen. De toren van Babel, bl. 16-19.

Nieuwenhuijsen 2005. Het verschijnsel TAAL. Een kennismaking, bl. 81-91 (oor dialek en taal).

Van der Horst, J.M. 2005. Overpeinzingen uit Leuven: 72 talen.

Van der Sijs 2004. Voorwoord by de reeks “Taal in stad en land”. In Van Bree 2004: 5-9. (Oor die verskil ‘taal’ vs. ‘dialek’.)

Van Maris 2010. Tellen tot de dag des oordeels. Hoeveel talen zijn er nu écht in de wereld?, bl 248-249.

Anderson, S.R. 2011. How many languages are there in the world?

Anderson, S.R. 2012. Languages. A very short introduction.

Bergmann e.a. (eds.) 2010. Language Files: Materials for an Introduction to Language and Linguistics. Hoofstuk 13.

Burleigh 2004. English to be spoken by half of the world’s population within 10 years.

Comrie 1990. Introduction, bl. 1-12.

Comrie e.a. 2010. The Atlas of Languages. The origin and development of languages throughout the world, bl. 18-25.

Crawhall 1997. The death of a useless language.

Fasold & Connor-Linton (eds.) 2006. An Introduction to Language and Linguistics, bl. 386-389

Finegan & Besnier 1989. Language – Its Structure and Use, bl. 294-296.

Gibbs 2002. Saving languages, bl. 63-69.

Haugen 1966. Dialect, Language, Nation, bl. 922-935. (’n Belangrike ouer artikel.)

Honey 1997. Language is power, bl. 21-43 (oor dialek)

Iaconis 2013. Shingwauk Gathering aims to Save language.

Janson 2002. Speak. A short history of languages, bl. 25 e.v.

Knight 2004. Half of all languages face extinction this century.

Koch 1997. Last voice of an ancient tongue.

Krauss 1992. The World’s Languages in Crisis, bl. 4-10.

Leonard 2005. Knowledge fades as Africa languages die.

Maho 2004. How many languages are there in Africa really?

McWhorter 2003. The power of Babel, bl. 53 e.v.

Mufwene 2000. Languages don’t kill languages; speakers do.

Murphy 2007. Vigil for the vanishing tongue.

O’Brien 2003a. Ancient tongues fade away.

O’Brien 2003b. Linguists battle to Save thouSands of endangered languages.

Pereltsvaig 2012. Languages of the World. An introduction, bl. 4-6.

Trask 2007. Historical linguistics, bl. 308-339.

Trask 2015. Trask’s Historical Linguistics. (Hoofstuk 11.)

Velasquez-Manoff 2007. Linguists seek a time when we spoke as one.

Voegelin & Voegelin 1977. Classification and Index of the World’s Languages.

Wade 2011. Phonetic clues hint language is Africa-born.

Walker 2005. In defence of ‘lost’ languages.

Williams, C.H. 2013. Minority Language Promotion. Protection and Regulation. (Die bevordering en beskerming van minderheidstale, soos Baskies, Iers, Wallies, e.a.)

3.3            Getalle en tale

“Why is it that humans speak so many languages? And why are they so unevenly spread across the planet? As it turns out, we have few clear answers to these fundamental questions about how humanity communicates.” (Gavin, M. 2017. Why do human beings speak so many languages? Geplaas 16 Julie 2017. http://theconversation.com/why-do-human-beings-speak-so-many-languages-75434)

Which Languages Have the Most Speakers?

It comes as no surprise that English reigns supreme, with over 1.1 billion total speakers—or roughly 15% of the global population. Mandarin Chinese, Hindi, Spanish, and French round out the top five.

However, this is only one piece in the full fabric of languages. 

 The metrics for native speakers tell a slightly different tale, as Mandarin Chinese shoots up to 918 million—almost 2.5x that of English native speakers.

Here, Spanish comes in strong second for native speakers with 460 million, considering it’s well-used across Latin America. The Indian languages of Hindi and Bengali cap off the top five by native speakers as well.

Nearly 43% of the world’s population is bilingual, with the ability to switch between two languages with ease.


Jackson, N. 2013. Volledige Bybel in 10% van dié tale.

Stevenson (red.) 1989. Atlas van de Europese talen. Geschiedenis en ontwikkeling.

De Swaan 2002a. Woorden van de wereld: het mondiale wereldtalenstelsel.

Baker, A. e.a. (eds.) 2016. The Linguistics of Sign Languages. An Introduction.

Bright (ed.) 1992. International Encyclopedia of Linguistics.

BusinessTech 2015. These are the most spoken languages in South Africa.

Campbell, L. 2013. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction.

Campbell & King 2010. The Routledge Concise Compendium of the World’s Languages.

Comrie 1990. The Major Languages of Western Europe.

Comrie & Corbett (eds.) 2012. The Slavonic Languages.

Dalby 2004. Dictionary of languages. The definitive reference to more than 400 languages.

De Swaan 2002b. The world language system; A political sociology and political economy of language.

Dixon 1997. The Rise and Fall of Languages.

Erard, M. 2014. Want to influence the world? Map reveals the best languages to speak.

Ethnologue 17. 2013. “Languages of the World”. http://www.ethnologue.com/web.asp

Heine & Nurse (eds.) 2011. A Linguistic Geography of Africa.

Hunter 2015. C’est impossible! French set to be the world’s most commonly spoken language by 2050 because of soaring population growth in sub-Saharan Africa.

Jepsen e.a. (eds.) 2015. Sign Languages of the World.

Leavitt 2015. Linguistic Relativities.

Lyovin 1997. An introduction to the languages of the world.

McMahon & McMahon 2005. Language Classification by Numbers.

Noack 2015. The future of language.

Noack & Gamio 2015. The world’s languages, in 7 maps and charts.

Price (ed.) 1998. An Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe.

Ruhlen 1991. A Guide to the World’s Languages.

Schembri 2013. What is sign language?

Seelinger, L. 2015. The 10 oldest languages still spoken today.

Ssentanda & Nakayiza 2015. English rules in Uganda, but local languages shouldn’t be sidelined.

Voegelin & Voegelin 1977. Classification and Index of the World’s Languages.

Webb & Sure (eds.) 2000. African voices. An introduction to the languages and linguistics of Africa.

Dorren, G. 2018. Babel. Around the World in 20 languages. London: Profile Books.

Ghosh, I. 2020. Ranked: The 100 Most Spoken Languages Around the World. Geplaas 15 Febr. 2020.  https://www.visualcapitalist.com/100-most-spoken-languages/


Beeld, 11 Julie 2020, bl. 7. Geprojekteerde wêreldbevolking teen 2100

3.4            Engels: wêreldtaal of nie?

“The assumption that English is the sole language of globalisation, and in everyone’s interest is patently false.” (R. Phillipson 2017)

“Whether the current dominance of English will continue for more than a decade or two is an open question.” (R. Phillipson 2017)

“ … English is now marketed as a language that everyone needs and that all should learn. This is one of the myths of global English. It is blithely proclaimed as the lingua franca of science, of business, of
European integration, and of international understanding as though no other languages serve such purposes. English is fraudulently projected as a de-territorialised language that is disconnected from its original sources and even from the driving forces behind its expansion worldwide. English is promoted as if it played no role in intensifying the global and local gaps between haves and have-nots, the obscenely rich in North and South countries and the Majority World. Globalisation itself is a false universalism (Bourdieu 2010). Global English needs to be understood as a project behind which there are identifiable agents.” (R. Phillipson 2017)

“… the English used as an international scientific language is not a lingua franca, a non-language. English is a completely normal language with its specific monolingual semantics, like all other languages. […] It is the bearer, like all other natural languages, of a particular vision of the world.”

Jürgen Trabant, 2012 (Aangehaal in R. Phillipson 2017)

“There is no denying that English is one of the world’s major languages. It’s the mother tongue of nearly 370 million people. English is also very frequently used by scientists in academic journals and book chapters, along with other common languages like French, Spanish and Portuguese. But what about the billions of people who speak very little English, or none at all? How can we improve their access to scientific information and knowledge?” (Ramos, A. & M. Empinotti 2017. Indigenous languages must feature more in science communication. Geplaas 19 Des. 2017. https://theconversation.com/indigenous-languages-must-feature-more-in-science-communication-88596)

“Behemoth, bully, loudmouth, thief: English is everywhere, and everywhere, English dominates. From inauspicious beginnings on the edge of a minor European archipelago, it has grown to vast size and astonishing influence. Almost 400m people speak it as their first language; a billion more know it as a secondary tongue. It is an official language in at least 59 countries, the unofficial lingua franca of dozens more. No language in history has been used by so many people or spanned a greater portion of the globe. It is aspirational: the golden ticket to the worlds of education and international commerce, a parent’s dream and a student’s misery, winnower of the haves from the have-nots. It is inescapable: the language of global business, the internet, science, diplomacy, stellar navigation, avian pathology. And everywhere it goes, it leaves behind a trail of dead: dialects crushed, languages forgotten, literatures mangled.” Jacob Mikanowski 2018 – https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/jul/27/english-language-global-dominance

“…, 66% of English speakers learned it as a second language.” (https://www.visualcapitalist.com/100-most-spoken-languages/)

“In de zeventiende eeuw nam het Frans de rol over van het Latijn. Als taal van het hof van Versailles en de salons, de internationale diplomatie en later de Verlichting. Zeker tot 1918, in België zelfs tot de jaren 1950, bleef het Frans een staal met grote status, en dus macht.

En nu is het dus de beurt aan het Engels, en wel over de hele planeet. Het is de koinè van vandaag: althans het soort Engels dat door niet-moedertaalsprekers wordt gesproken en geschreven. Taalkundigen zeggen ons dat dat nog zeker een halve eeuw zo is. Nee, u hoeft voorlopig niet wakker te liggen van Mandarijn. Het Engels is dus noodzakelijk. Het is evenwel niet voldoende.

Talen staan altijd tegenover elkaar in machtsverhoudingen. Het Engels heeft dus het meeste macht. Op zijn eentje is het in staat andere talen aan de kant te schuiven. Het is dé glamour -glittertaal bij uitstek. Dat betekent dat de andere minder kunnen schitteren en dus doffer worden.” (Devoldere, L. 2019. Engels is noodzakelijk, maar niet voldoende. De Lage Landen, geplaas 13 Des. 2019. https://www.de-lage-landen.com/article/engels-is-noodzakelijk-maar-niet-voldoende)

Comer 2011. Ludo Melis: Nederlands en Engels zijn complementair.

Degryse 2005. Spreken we straks allemaal Engels?

Vanneste 2012. Engels, het Bargoens van het hoger onderwijs.

Van Oostendorp 1999. Het point of no return voor het Engels. Interview met Abram de Swaan.

Devoldere, L. 2019. Engels is noodzakelijk, maar niet voldoende. De Lage Landen, geplaas 13 Des. 2019. https://www.de-lage-landen.com/article/engels-is-noodzakelijk-maar-niet-voldoende

Sybesma, R. 2018. Politiek nu aan zet in taalstrijd. Trouw, 10 Febr. 2018, bl. 27.

Van Oostendorp, M. 2017. Het Engels is geen lingua nullius. Geplaas 30 Nov. 2017.


Barnes, L. 2005. English as a global language: An African experience, bl. 243-265.

Bonomo 2017. World English(es) and the Multilingual Turn. Frameworks of Complex Phenomena.

Bunce, P. e.a. (eds.) 2016. Why English? Confronting the Hydra.

Burleigh 2004. English to be spoken by half of the world’s population within 10 years.

BusinessTech 2015. These are the most spoken languages in South Africa.

Crystal 2004. The Language Revolution, bl. 6 e.v.

Crystal 2010. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, bl. 370-371.

Crystal 2012b. Into the Twenty-first Century, bl. 394-413.

Erling & Seargeant (eds.) 2013. English and Development. Policy, Pedagogy and Literacy Studies.

Friedrich (ed.) 2016. English for Diplomatic Purposes.

Galloway & Rose 2015. Introducing Global Englishes.

Gordin 2015. Scientific Babel. The Language of Science from the Fall of Latin to the Rise of English.

Hewings & Tagg (eds.) 2012. The Politics of English: Conflict, Competition, Co-existence.

Holmes & Dervin (eds.) 2016. The Cultural and Intercultural Dimensions of English as a Lingua Franca.

House 2014. English as a global lingua franca: A threat to multilingual communication and translation?

Hultgren & Erling 2016. English has taken over academia: but the real culprit is not linguistic.

Jenkins 2013. English as a Lingua Franca in the International University. The Politics of Academic English Language Policy.

Lillis & Curry 2013. English, Scientific Publishing and Participation in the Global Knowledge Economy.

Linn 2016. Investigating English in Europe. Contexts and Agendas.

Linn e.a. (eds.) 2015. Attitudes towards English in Europe.

Mair 2014. Does money talk, and do languages have price tags? Economic perspectives on English as a global language, bl. 249-266.

McArthur 2012. English World-wide in the Twentieth Century, bl. 360-393.

McWhorter 2009. The Cosmopolitan Tongue: The Universality of English.

McWhorter 2015a. What the World Will Speak in 2115.

Meshtrie 2016. How the Queen’s English has had to defer to Africa’s rich multilingualism.

Mizumura 2015. The Fall of Language in the Age of English.

Mufwene 2016a. English: the Empire is dead. Long live the Empire.

O’Regan 2014. English as a Lingua Franca. An immanent critique.

Ostler 2006. Empires of the Word. A language history of the world, bl. 549-556.

Pascoe 2016. English no longer holds sway in the digital age.

Pitzl & Osimk-Teasdale (eds.) 2016. English as a Lingua Franca. Perspectives and Prospects.

Plo-Alastrué & Pérez-Llantada (eds.) 2015. English as a Scientific and Research Language.

Ritchie, H. 2013. It’s time to challenge the notion that there is only one way to speak English.

Salomone 2015. The rise of global English: Challenges for English-medium instruction and language rights, bl. 245-268.

Seargeant 2012. The politics and policies of global English, bl. 5-32. (Veral bl. 22-30 oor die hegemonie van Engels.)

Singh, N.K. 2013. Multilingual Trends in a Globalized World. (Hoofstuk 6.)

Swain. 2014. Lack of languages stifles Brits and Americans.

Vettorel 2014. English as a Lingua Franca in Wider Networking.

Coetzee-Van Rooy, S. 2006. Integrativeness: untenable for world Englishes learners? World Englishes, 25 (3/4): 437–450.

De Schutter, H. 2018. Global Linguistic Justice and English as a Lingua Franca. In Grin, F. & P. Kraus (eds.) 2018. The Politics of Multilingualism. Linguistic Governance, Globalisation and Europeanisation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Hall, C.J. & R. Wicaksono (eds.) 2020. Ontologies of English. Conceptualising the Language for Learning, Teaching, and Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Book URL: https://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/languages-linguistics/applied-linguistics-and-second-language-acquisition/ontologies-english-conceptualising-language-learning-teaching-and-assessment?format=HB

Enever, J. 2018. Policy and Politics in Global Primary English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fanso, V.A. 2017. History explains why Cameroon is at war with itself over language and culture. Geplaas 15 Okt. 2017. http://theconversation.com/history-explains-why-cameroon-is-at-war-with-itself-over-language-and-culture-85401

Filppula, M.; J. Klemola, A. Mauranen & S. Vetchinnikova (eds.) 2019. Changing English. Global and Local Perspectives. Berlyn: De Gruyter Mouton. Book URL: https://www.degruyter.com/view/product/458028?format=B

Hickey, R. (ed.) 2019. English in Multilingual South Africa. The Linguistics of Contact and Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Book URL: https://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/languages-linguistics/african-and-caribbean-language-and-linguistics/english-multilingual-south-africa-linguistics-contact-and-change?localeText=United+States&locale=en_US&query=&remember_me=on

Hickey, R. (ed.) 2020. English in the German-Speaking World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Book URL: https://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/languages-linguistics/european-language-and-linguistics/english-german-speaking-world?format=HB

Murray, N. 2017. Standards of English in Higher Education. Issues, Challenges and Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Phillipson, R. 2017. Myths and realities of ‘global’ English. Language Policy, 16 (3): 313-331.

Rankin, J. 2017. Brexit: English is losing its importance in Europe, says Juncker. The Guardian, 5 Mei 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2017/may/05/brexit-english-is-losing-its-importance-in-europe-says-juncker?CMP=share_btn_link

Schreier, d. & M. Hundt (eds.) 2015. English as a Contact Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sebba, M. 2017. ‘English a foreign tongue’: The 2011 Census in England and the misunderstanding of multilingualism. Journal of Language & Politics, 16(2): 264 – 284.